The resemblance to the eightfold cube is, of course,
completely coincidental.
Some background from the literature —
The resemblance to the eightfold cube is, of course,
completely coincidental.
Some background from the literature —
A brief summary of the eightfold cube is now at octad.us.
Exercise: Use the Guitart 7cycles below to relate the 56 triples
in an 8set (such as the eightfold cube) to the 56 triangles in
a wellknown Kleinquartic hyperbolicplane tiling. Then use
the correspondence of the triples with the 56 spreads of PG(3,2)
to construct M_{24}.
Click image below to download a Guitart PowerPoint presentation.
See as well earlier posts also tagged Triangles, Spreads, Mathieu.
For PSL(2,7), this is ((491)(497))/((71)(2))=168.
The group GL(3,2), also of order 168, acts naturally
on the set of seven cubeslicings below —
Another way to picture the seven natural slicings —
Application of the above images to picturing the
isomorphism of PSL(2,7) with GL(3,2) —
For a more detailed proof, see . . .
Found today in an Internet image search, from the website of
an anonymous amateur mathematics enthusiast —
Forming Gray codes in the eightfold cube with the eight
I Ching trigrams (bagua ) —
This journal on Nov. 7, 2016 —
A different sort of cube, from the makers of the recent
Netflix miniseries "Maniac" —
See also Rubik in this journal.
Click to enlarge:
Above are the 7 frames of an animated gif from a Wikipedia article.
* For the Furey of the title, see a July 20 Quanta Magazine piece —
See also the eightfold cube in this journal.
"Before time began . . . ." — Optimus Prime
From a post of July 25, 2008, "56 Triangles," on the Klein quartic
and the eightfold cube —
"Baez's discussion says that the Klein quartic's 56 triangles
can be partitioned into 7 eighttriangle Egan 'cubes' that
correspond to the 7 points of the Fano plane in such a way
that automorphisms of the Klein quartic correspond to
automorphisms of the Fano plane. Show that the
56 triangles within the eightfold cube can also be partitioned
into 7 eighttriangle sets that correspond to the 7 points of the
Fano plane in such a way that (affine) transformations of the
eightfold cube induce (projective) automorphisms of the Fano plane."
Related material from 1975 —
More recently …
A New, Improved Version of Quantum Suffering !
Background for group actions on the eightfold cube —
See also other posts now tagged Quantum Suffering
as well as — related to the image above of the Great Wall —
The reported death today at 105 of an admirable war correspondent,
"a perennial fixture at the Foreign Correspondents’ Club in Hong Kong,"
suggested a search in this journal for that city.
The search recalled to mind a notable quotation from
a Montreal philosopher —
“… the object sets up a kind of
frame or space or field
within which there can be epiphany.”
Charles Taylor, "Epiphanies of Modernism,"
Chapter 24 of Sources of the Self
(Cambridge U. Press, 1989, p. 477)
For some context, see St. Lucia's Day, 2012.
See also Epiphany 2017 —
The assignments page for a graduate algebra course at Cornell
last fall had a link to the eightfold cube:
"Frye's largely imaginary eightfold roman
may have provided him a personal substitute—
or alternative— for both ideology and myth."
— P. 63 of James C. Nohrnberg, "The Master of
the Myth of Literature: An Interpenetrative Ogdoad
for Northrop Frye," Comparative Literature Vol. 53,
No. 1 (Winter, 2001), pp. 5882
See also today's earlier post In Nuce .
A KUNSTforum.as article online today (translation by Google) —
Update of Sept. 7, 2016: The corrections have been made,
except for the misspelling "Cullinan," which was caused by
Google translation, not by KUNSTforum.
The following page quotes "Raiders of the Lost Crucible,"
a Log24 post from Halloween 2015.
From KUNSTforum.as, a Norwegian art quarterly, issue no. 1 of 2016.
Related posts — See Lyche Eightfold.
An eightfold cube appears in this detail
of a photo by Josefine Lyche of her
installation "4D Ambassador" at the
Norwegian Sculpture Biennial 2015 —
(Detail from private Instagram photo.)
Catalog description of installation —
Google Translate version —
In a small bedroom to Foredragssalen populate
Josefine Lyche exhibition with a group sculptures
that are part of the work group 4D Ambassador
(20142015). Together they form an installation
where she uses light to amplify the feeling of
stepping into a new dimension, for which the title
suggests, this "ambassadors" for a dimension we
normally do not have access to. "Ambassadors"
physical forms presents nonphysical phenomena.
Lyches works have in recent years been placed
in something one might call an "esoteric direction"
in contemporary art, and defines itself this
sculpture group humorous as "glamminimalist."
She has in many of his works returned to basic
geometric shapes, with hints to the occult,
"new spaceage", mathematics and where
everything in between.
See also Lyche + "4D Ambassador" in this journal and
her website page with a 2012 version of that title.
A search today (Élie Cartan's birthday) for material related to triality*
yielded references to something that has been called a Bhargava cube .
Two pages from a 2006 paper by Bhargava—
Bhargava's reference [4] above for "the story of the cube" is to…
Higher Composition Laws I:
A New View on Gauss Composition,
and Quadratic Generalizations
Manjul Bhargava
The Annals of Mathematics
Second Series, Vol. 159, No. 1 (Jan., 2004), pp. 217250
Published by: Annals of Mathematics
Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3597249
A brief account in the context of embedding problems (click to enlarge)—
For more ways of slicing a cube,
see The Eightfold Cube —
* Note (1) some remarks by Tony Smith
related to the above Dynkin diagram
and (2) another colorful variation on the diagram.
Three links with a Borges flavor—
Related material
The 236 in yesterday evening's NY lottery may be
viewed as the 236 in March 18's Defining Configurations.
For some background, see Configurations and Squares.
A new illustration for that topic—
This shows a reconcilation of the triples described by Sloane
in Defining Configurations with the square geometric
arrangement described by Coxeter in the Aleph link above.
Note that the 56 from yesterday's midday NY lottery
describes the triples that appear both in the Eightfold Way
link above and also in a possible source for
the eight triples of Sloane's 8_{3} configuration—
The geometric square arrangement discussed in the Aleph link
above appears in a different, but still rather Borgesian, context
in yesterday morning's Minimalist Icon.
Related web pages:
Miracle Octad Generator,
Generating the Octad Generator,
Geometry of the 4×4 Square
Related folklore:
"It is commonly known that there is a bijection between the 35 unordered triples of a 7set [i.e., the 35 partitions of an 8set into two 4sets] and the 35 lines of PG(3,2) such that lines intersect if and only if the corresponding triples have exactly one element in common." –"Generalized Polygons and Semipartial Geometries," by F. De Clerck, J. A. Thas, and H. Van Maldeghem, April 1996 minicourse, example 5 on page 6
The Miracle Octad Generator may be regarded as illustrating the folklore.
Update of August 20, 2010–
For facts rather than folklore about the above bijection, see The Moore Correspondence.
Harvard Crimson headline today–
“Deconstructing Design“
Reconstructing Design
The phrase “eightfold way” in today’s
previous entry has a certain
graphic resonance…
For instance, an illustration from the
Wikipedia article “Noble Eightfold Path” —
Adapted detail–
See also, from
St. Joseph’s Day—
Harvard students who view Christian symbols
with fear and loathing may meditate
on the above as a representation of
the Gankyil rather than of the Trinity.
“Let me say this about that.” — Richard Nixon
Interpenetration in Weyl’s epistemology —
Interpenetration in Mazzola’s music theory —
Interpenetration in the eightfold cube — the three midplanes —
A deeper example of interpenetration:
Aitchison has shown that the Mathieu group M_{24} has a natural
action on the 24 center points of the subsquares on the eightfold
cube’s six faces (four such points on each of the six faces). Thus
the 759 octads of the Steiner system S(5, 8, 24) interpenetrate
on the surface of the cube.
See the title in this journal.
Such generation occurs both in Euclidean space …
… and in some Galois spaces —
In Galois spaces, some care must be taken in defining "reflection."
Freeman Dyson on his staircase at Trinity College
(University of Cambridge) and on Ludwig Wittgenstein:
“I held him in the highest respect and was delighted
to find him living in a room above mine on the same
staircase. I frequently met him walking up or down
the stairs, but I was too shy to start a conversation.”
Frank Close on Ron Shaw:
“Shaw arrived there in 1949 and moved into room K9,
overlooking Jesus Lane. There is nothing particularly
special about this room other than the coincidence that
its previous occupant was Freeman Dyson.”
— Close, Frank. The Infinity Puzzle (p. 78).
Basic Books. Kindle Edition.
See also other posts now tagged Trinity Staircase.
Illuminati enthusiasts may enjoy the following image:
Roberta Smith on Donald Judd’s BY ALEX GREENBERGER February 28, 2020 1:04pm If Minimalist artist Donald Judd is known as a writer at all, it’s likely for one important text— his 1965 essay “Specific Objects,” in which he observed the rise of a new kind of art that collapsed divisions between painting, sculpture, and other mediums. But Judd was a prolific critic, penning shrewd reviews for various publications throughout his career—including ARTnews . With a Judd retrospective going on view this Sunday at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, ARTnews asked New York Times cochief art critic Roberta Smith— who, early in her career, worked for Judd as his assistant— to comment on a few of Judd’s ARTnews reviews. How would she describe his critical style? “In a word,” she said, “great.” . . . . 
And then there is Temple Eight, or Ex Fano Apollinis —
Cicero, In Verrem II. 1. 46 —
He reached Delos. There one night he secretly 46 carried off, from the muchrevered sanctuary of Apollo, several ancient and beautiful statues, and had them put on board his own transport. Next day, when the inhabitants of Delos saw their sanc tuary stripped of its treasures, they were much distressed . . . .
Delum venit. Ibi ex fano Apollinis religiosissimo noctu clam sustulit signa pulcherrima atque anti quissima, eaque in onerariam navem suam conicienda curavit. Postridie cum fanum spoliatum viderent ii qui Delum incolebant, graviter ferebant . . . .
From the author who in 2001 described "God's fingerprint"
(see the previous post) —
From the same publisher —
From other posts tagged Triskele in this journal —
Other geometry for enthusiasts of the esoteric —
Monday, November 4, 2019
As Above, So Below*


"Although art is fundamentally everywhere and always the same,
nevertheless two main human inclinations, diametrically opposed
to each other, appear in its many and varied expressions. ….
The first aims at representing reality objectively, the second subjectively."
— Mondrian, 1936 [Links added.]
An image search today (click to enlarge) —
The 759 octads of the Steiner system S(5,8,24) are displayed
rather neatly in the Miracle Octad Generator of R. T. Curtis.
A March 9, 2018, construction by Iain Aitchison* pictures the
759 octads on the faces of a cube , with octad elements the
24 edges of a cuboctahedron :
The Curtis octads are related to symmetries of the square.
See my webpage "Geometry of the 4×4 square" from March 2004.
Aitchison's p. 42 slide includes an illustration from that page —
Aitchison's octads are instead related to symmetries of the cube.
Note that essentially the same model as Aitchison's can be pictured
by using, instead of the 24 edges of a cuboctahedron, the 24 outer
faces of subcubes in the eightfold cube .
Image from Christmas Day 2005.
* http://www.math.sci.hiroshimau.ac.jp/branched/files/2018/
presentations/AitchisonHiroshima22018.pdf.
See also Aitchison in this journal.
"I like to put people on myself by skipping logical steps
in the conversation until they're dizzy." — Jemima Brown
in The Eiger Sanction
Related posts — See "McLuhan Tetrad" in this journal.
Related theology — See "The Meaning of Perichoresis."
Background — The New Yorker , "On Religion:
Richard Rohr Reorders the Universe," by Eliza Griswold
on February 2, 2020, and a different reordering in posts
tagged Eightfold Metaphysics.
The Fourfold Square and Eightfold Cube
Related material: A Google image search for "field dream" + log24.
The above image is from
"A FourColor Theorem:
Function Decomposition Over a Finite Field,"
http://finitegeometry.org/sc/gen/mapsys.html.
These partitions of an 8set into four 2sets
occur also in Wednesday night's post
Miracle Octad Generator Structure.
This post was suggested by a Daily News
story from August 8, 2011, and by a Log24
post from that same date, "Organizing the
Mine Workers" —
(Adapted from Eightfold Geometry, a note of April 28, 2010.
See also the recent post Geometry of 6 and 8.)
Just as
the finite space PG(3,2) is
the geometry of the 6set, so is
the finite space PG(5,2)
the geometry of the 8set.*
Selah.
* Consider, for the 6set, the 32
(16, modulo complementation)
0, 2, 4, and 6subsets,
and, for the 8set, the 128
(64, modulo complementation)
0, 2, 4, 6, and 8subsets.
Update of 11:02 AM ET the same day:
See also Eightfold Geometry, a note from 2010.
Entertainment from NBC on Friday night —
The above question, and Saturday morning's post on a film director
from Melbourne, suggest an image from December's Melbourne Noir —
(March 8, 2018, was the date of death for Melbourne author Peter Temple.)
The title was suggested by the previous post and by
the title illustration in the weblog of the director,
Leigh Whannell, of the 2018 film "Upgrade."
Related visual details —
For the Church of Synchronology —
Related remarks: "The Thing and I."
From Wallace Stevens —
"Reality is the beginning not the end,
Naked Alpha, not the hierophant Omega,
Of dense investiture, with luminous vassals."
— “An Ordinary Evening in New Haven” VI
From The Point magazine yesterday, October 8, 2019 —
Parricide: On Irad Kimhi's Thinking and Being .
Book review by Steven Methven.
The conclusion:
"Parricide is nothing that the philosopher need fear . . . .
What sustains can be no threat. Perhaps what the
unique genesis of this extraordinary work suggests is that
the true threat to philosophy is infanticide."
This remark suggests revisiting a post from Monday —
Monday, October 7, 2019
Berlekamp Garden vs. Kinder Garten

Stevens's Omega and Alpha (see previous post) suggest a review.
Omega — The Berlekamp Garden. See Misère Play (April 8, 2019).
Alpha — The Kinder Garten. See Eighfold Cube.
Illustrations —
The sculpture above illustrates Klein's order168 simple group.
So does the sculpture below.
Cube Bricks 1984 —
Cover illustration— Arithmetic and Music,
Borgia Apartments, the Vatican.
See also Rothstein in this journal.
Related posts: The Eightfold Hijacking.
"The 15 Puzzle and the Magic Cube
are spiritual kin …."
— "Metamagical Themas" column,
Douglas R. Hofstadter, Scientific American ,
Vol. 244, No. 3 (March 1981), pp. 2039
As are the 15 Schoolgirls and the Eightfold Cube.
Cube Bricks 1984 —
From "Tomorrowland" (2015) —
From John Baez (2018) —
See also this morning's post Perception of Space
and yesterday's Exploring Schoolgirl Space.
"The loveliness of Paris seems somehow sadly gay." — Song lyric
Stewart also starred in "Equals" (2016). From a synopsis —
"Stewart plays Nia, a writer who works at a company that extols
the virtues of space exploration in a postapocalyptic society.
She falls in love with the film's main character, Silas (Nicholas Hoult),
an illustrator . . . ."
Space art in The Paris Review —
For a different sort of space exploration, see Eightfold 1984.
The new Log24 tag "Eightfold Metaphysics" used in the previous post
suggests a review of posts that were tagged "The Reality Blocks" on May 24.
Then there is, of course, the May 24 death of Murray GellMann, who
hijacked from Buddhism the phrase "eightfold way."
See GellMann in this journal and May 24, 2003.
Compare and contrast with . . .
The Brightburn Logo:
Related material from the May 12 post
"The Collective Unconscious
in a Cartoon Graveyard" —
"When they all finally reach their destination — " When asked about the film's similarities to the 2015 Disney movie Tomorrowland , which also posits a futuristic world that exists in an alternative dimension, Nichols sighed. 'I was a little bummed, I guess,' he said of when he first learned about the project. . . . 'Our die was cast. Sometimes this kind of collective unconscious that we're all dabbling in, sometimes you're not the first one out of the gate.' " 
From "On the life and scientific work of Gino Fano"
by Alberto Collino, Alberto Conte, and Alessandro Verra,
ICCM Notices , July 2014, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 4357 —
" Indeed, about the Italian debate on foundations of Geometry, it is not rare to read comments in the same spirit of the following one, due to Jeremy Gray^{13}. He is essentially reporting Hans Freudenthal’s point of view: ' When the distinguished mathematician and historian of mathematics Hans Freudenthal analysed Hilbert’s Grundlagen he argued that the link between reality and geometry appears to be severed for the first time in Hilbert’s work. However, he discovered that Hilbert had been preceded by the Italian mathematician Gino Fano in 1892. . . .' " ^{13} J. Gray, "The Foundations of Projective Geometry in Italy," Chapter 24 (pp. 269–279) in his book Worlds Out of Nothing , Springer (2010). 
Restoring the severed link —
See also Espacement and The Thing and I.
Related material —
See also Espacement and The Thing and I.
From a New York Times book review of a new novel about
Timothy Leary that was in the Times online on April 10 —
"Most of the novel resides in the perspective
of Fitzhugh Loney, one of Leary’s graduate students."
"A version of this article appears in print on ,
on Page 10 of the Sunday Book Review with the headline:
Strange Days."
For material about one of Leary's non fictional grad students,
Ralph Metzner, see posts now tagged Metzner's Pi Day.
Related material —
The reported publication date of Searching for the Philosophers' Stone
was January 1, 2019.
A related search published here on that date:
* Title suggested by two of Ralph Metzner's titles,
The Expansion of Consciousness and The Unfolding Self .
(Continued from the previous post.)
InBetween "Spacing" and the "Chôra " (Ch. 2 in Henk Oosterling & Ewa Plonowska Ziarek (Eds.), Intermedialities: Philosophy, Arts, Politics , Lexington Books, October 14, 2010) "The term 'spacing' ('espacement ') is absolutely central to Derrida's entire corpus, where it is indissociable from those of différance (characterized, in the text from 1968 bearing this name, as '[at once] spacing [and] temporizing' ^{1}), writing (of which 'spacing' is said to be 'the fundamental property' ^{2}) and deconstruction (with one of Derrida's last major texts, Le Toucher: JeanLuc Nancy , specifying 'spacing ' to be 'the first word of any deconstruction' ^{3})." 1 Jacques Derrida, “La Différance,” in Marges – de la philosophie (Paris: Minuit, 1972), p. 14. Henceforth cited as D . 2 Jacques Derrida, “Freud and the Scene of Writing,” trans. A. Bass, in Writing and Difference (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), p. 217. Henceforth cited as FSW . 3 Jacques Derrida, Le Toucher, JeanLuc Nancy (Paris: Galilée, 2000), p. 207. . . . . "… a particularly interesting point is made in this respect by the French philosopher, Michel Haar. After remarking that the force Derrida attributes to différance consists simply of the series of its effects, and is, for this reason, 'an indefinite process of substitutions or permutations,' Haar specifies that, for this process to be something other than a simple 'actualisation' lacking any real power of effectivity, it would need “a soubassement porteur ' – let’s say a 'conducting underlay' or 'conducting medium' which would not, however, be an absolute base, nor an 'origin' or 'cause.' If then, as Haar concludes, différance and spacing show themselves to belong to 'a pure Apollonism' 'haunted by the groundless ground,' which they lack and deprive themselves of,^{16} we can better understand both the threat posed by the 'figures' of space and the mother in the Timaeus and, as a result, Derrida’s insistent attempts to disqualify them. So great, it would seem, is the menace to différance that Derrida must, in a 'properly' apotropaic gesture, ward off these 'figures' of an archaic, chthonic, spatial matrix in any and all ways possible…." 16 Michel Haar, “Le jeu de Nietzsche dans Derrida,” Revue philosophique de la France et de l’Etranger 2 (1990): 207227. . . . . … "The conclusion to be drawn from Democritus' conception of rhuthmos , as well as from Plato's conception of the chôra , is not, therefore, as Derrida would have it, that a differential field understood as an originary site of inscription would 'produce' the spatiality of space but, on the contrary, that 'differentiation in general' depends upon a certain 'spatial milieu' – what Haar would name a 'groundless ground' – revealed as such to be an 'inbetween' more 'originary' than the play of differences it informs. As such, this conclusion obviously extends beyond Derrida's conception of 'spacing,' encompassing contemporary philosophy's continual privileging of temporization in its elaboration of a preontological 'opening' – or, shall we say, 'inbetween.' 
For permutations and a possible "groundless ground," see
the eightfold cube and group actions both on a set of eight
building blocks arranged in a cube (a "conducting base") and
on the set of seven natural interstices (espacements ) between
the blocks. Such group actions provide an elementary picture of
the isomorphism between the groups PSL(2,7) (acting on the
eight blocks) and GL(3,2) (acting on the seven interstices).
Espacements
For the Church of Synchronology —
See also, from the reported publication date of the above book
Intermedialities , the Log24 post Synchronicity.
* For another such tale, see Eightfold Cube in this journal.
This post was suggested by the phrase "Froebel Decade" from
the search results below.
This journal a decade ago had a post on the late Donald Westlake,
an author who reportedly died of a heart attack in Mexico on Dec. 31,
2008, while on his way to a New Year's Eve dinner.
One of Westlake's books —
Related material —
The previous post, on the 3×3 square in ancient China,
suggests a review of group actions on that square
that include the quaternion group.
Click to enlarge —
Three links from the above finitegeometry.org webpage on the
quaternion group —
Related material —
See as well the two Log24 posts of December 1st, 2018 —
Character and In Memoriam.
This journal ten years ago today —
Surprise Package
From a talk by a Melbourne mathematician on March 9, 2018 —
The source — Talk II below —
Search Results

Related material —
The 56 triangles of the eightfold cube . . .
Image from Christmas Day 2005.
A search this morning for articles mentioning the Miracle Octad Generator
of R. T. Curtis within the last year yielded an abstract for two talks given
at Hiroshima on March 8 and 9, 2018 —
http://www.math.sci.hiroshimau.ac.jp/ branched/files/2018/abstract/Aitchison.txt Iain AITCHISON Title: Construction of highly symmetric Riemann surfaces, related manifolds, and some exceptional objects, I, II Abstract: Since antiquity, some mathematical objects have played a special role, underpinning new mathematics as understanding deepened. Perhaps archetypal are the Platonic polyhedra, subsequently related to Platonic idealism, and the contentious notion of existence of mathematical reality independent of human consciousness. Exceptional or unique objects are often associated with symmetry – manifest or hidden. In topology and geometry, we have natural base points for the moduli spaces of closed genus 2 and 3 surfaces (arising from the 2fold branched cover of the sphere over the 6 vertices of the octahedron, and Klein’s quartic curve, respectively), and Bring’s genus 4 curve arises in Klein’s description of the solution of polynomial equations of degree greater than 4, as well as in the construction of the HorrocksMumford bundle. Poincare’s homology 3sphere, and Kummer’s surface in real dimension 4 also play special roles. In other areas: we have the exceptional Lie algebras such as E8; the sporadic finite simple groups; the division algebras: Golay’s binary and ternary codes; the Steiner triple systems S(5,6,12) and S(5,8,24); the Leech lattice; the outer automorphisms of the symmetric group S6; the triality map in dimension 8; and so on. We also note such as: the 27 lines on a cubic, the 28 bitangents of a quartic curve, the 120 tritangents of a sextic curve, and so on, related to Galois’ exceptional finite groups PSL2(p) (for p= 5,7,11), and various other socalled `Arnol’d Trinities’. Motivated originally by the `Eightfold Way’ sculpture at MSRI in Berkeley, we discuss interrelationships between a selection of these objects, illustrating connections arising via highly symmetric Riemann surface patterns. These are constructed starting with a labeled polygon and an involution on its label set. Necessarily, in two lectures, we will neither delve deeply into, nor describe in full, contexts within which exceptional objects arise. We will, however, give sufficient definition and detail to illustrate essential interconnectedness of those exceptional objects considered. Our starting point will be simplistic, arising from ancient Greek ideas underlying atomism, and Plato’s concepts of space. There will be some overlap with a previous talk on this material, but we will illustrate with some different examples, and from a different philosophical perspective. Some new results arising from this work will also be given, such as an alternative graphicillustrated MOG (Miracle Octad Generator) for the Steiner system S(5,8,24), and an alternative to Singerman – Jones’ genus 70 Riemann surface previously proposed as a completion of an Arnol’d Trinity. Our alternative candidate also completes a Trinity whose two other elements are Thurston’s highly symmetric 6 and 8component links, the latter related by Thurston to Klein’s quartic curve. 
See also yesterday morning’s post, “Character.”
Update: For a followup, see the next Log24 post.
Clicking on Zong in the above post leads to a 2005 article
in the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society .
See also the eightfold cube and interality .
Einstein, "Geometry and Experience," lecture before the
Prussian Academy of Sciences, January 27, 1921–
… This view of axioms, advocated by modern axiomatics, purges mathematics of all extraneous elements, and thus dispels the mystic obscurity, which formerly surrounded the basis of mathematics. But such an expurgated exposition of mathematics makes it also evident that mathematics as such cannot predicate anything about objects of our intuition or real objects. In axiomatic geometry the words "point," "straight line," etc., stand only for empty conceptual schemata. That which gives them content is not relevant to mathematics. Yet on the other hand it is certain that mathematics generally, and particularly geometry, owes its existence to the need which was felt of learning something about the behavior of real objects. The very word geometry, which, of course, means earthmeasuring, proves this. For earthmeasuring has to do with the possibilities of the disposition of certain natural objects with respect to one another, namely, with parts of the earth, measuringlines, measuringwands, etc. It is clear that the system of concepts of axiomatic geometry alone cannot make any assertions as to the behavior of real objects of this kind, which we will call practicallyrigid bodies. To be able to make such assertions, geometry must be stripped of its merely logicalformal character by the coordination of real objects of experience with the empty conceptual schemata of axiomatic geometry. To accomplish this, we need only add the proposition: solid bodies are related, with respect to their possible dispositions, as are bodies in Euclidean geometry of three dimensions. Then the propositions of Euclid contain affirmations as to the behavior of practicallyrigid bodies. Geometry thus completed is evidently a natural science; we may in fact regard it as the most ancient branch of physics. Its affirmations rest essentially on induction from experience, but not on logical inferences only. We will call this completed geometry "practical geometry," and shall distinguish it in what follows from "purely axiomatic geometry." The question whether the practical geometry of the universe is Euclidean or not has a clear meaning, and its answer can only be furnished by experience. …. 
Later in the same lecture, Einstein discusses "the theory of a finite
universe." Of course he is not using "finite" in the sense of the field
of mathematics known as "finite geometry " — geometry with only finitely
many points.
Nevertheless, his remarks seem relevant to the Fano plane , an
axiomatically defined entity from finite geometry, and the eightfold cube ,
a physical object embodying the properties of the Fano plane.
I want to show that without any extraordinary difficulty we can illustrate the theory of a finite universe by means of a mental picture to which, with some practice, we shall soon grow accustomed. First of all, an observation of epistemological nature. A geometricalphysical theory as such is incapable of being directly pictured, being merely a system of concepts. But these concepts serve the purpose of bringing a multiplicity of real or imaginary sensory experiences into connection in the mind. To "visualize" a theory therefore means to bring to mind that abundance of sensible experiences for which the theory supplies the schematic arrangement. In the present case we have to ask ourselves how we can represent that behavior of solid bodies with respect to their mutual disposition (contact) that corresponds to the theory of a finite universe. 
From https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/…
A Few of My Favorite Spaces:
The intuitionchallenging Fano plane may be By Evelyn Lamb on October 24, 2015
"…finite projective planes seem like 
For Fano's axiomatic approach, see the Nov. 3 Log24 post
"Foundations of Geometry."
For the Fano plane's basis in reality , see the eightfold cube
at finitegeometry.org/sc/ and in this journal.
See as well "Two Views of Finite Space" (in this journal on the date
of Lamb's remarks — Oct. 24, 2015).
Some context: Gödel's Platonic realism vs. Hilbert's axiomatics
in remarks by Manuel Alfonseca on June 7, 2018. (See too remarks
in this journal on that date, in posts tagged "Road to Hell.")
"costruire (o, dirò meglio immaginare) un ente" — Fano, 1892
"o, dirò meglio, costruire" — Cullinane, 2018
"Husserl is not the greatest philosopher of all times. — Kurt Gödel as quoted by GianCarlo Rota Some results from a Google search — Eidetic reduction  philosophy  Britannica.com Eidetic reduction, in phenomenology, a method by which the philosopher moves from the consciousness of individual and concrete objects to the transempirical realm of pure essences and thus achieves an intuition of the eidos (Greek: “shape”) of a thing—i.e., of what it is in its invariable and essential structure, apart … Phenomenology Online » Eidetic Reduction
The eidetic reduction: eidos. Method: Bracket all incidental meaning and ask: what are some of the possible invariate aspects of this experience? The research Eidetic reduction – New World Encyclopedia Sep 19, 2017 – Eidetic reduction is a technique in Husserlian phenomenology, used to identify the essential components of the given phenomenon or experience. 
For example —
The reduction of twocolorings and fourcolorings of a square or cubic
array of subsquares or subcubes to lines, sets of lines, cuts, or sets of
cuts between* the subsquares or subcubes.
See the diamond theorem and the eightfold cube.
* Cf. posts tagged Interality and Interstice.
Review of yesterday's post Perception of Space —
From Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (1997),
republished as "… and the Sorcerer's Stone ," Kindle edition:
In a print edition from Bloomsbury (2004), and perhaps in the
earliest editions, the above word "movements" is the first word
on page 168:
Click the above ellipse for some Log24 posts on the eightfold cube,
the source of the 168 automorphisms ("movements") of the Fano plane.
"Refined interpretation requires that you know that
someone once said the offspring of reality and illusion
is only a staggering confusion."
— Poem, "The Game of Roles," by Mary Jo Bang
Related material on reality and illusion —
an ad on the back cover of the current New Yorker —
"Hey, the stars might lie, but the numbers never do." — Song lyric
* A footnote in memory of a dancer who reportedly died
yesterday, August 29 — See posts tagged Paradigm Shift.
"Birthday, deathday — what day is not both?" — John Updike
Suggested by a review of Curl on Modernism —
Related material —
Waugh + Orwell in this journal and …
McCarthy's "materialization of plot and character" does not,
for me, constitute a proof that "there is being, after all,
beyond the arbitrary flux of existence."
Neither does the above materialization of 281 as the page
number of her philosophical remark.
See also the materialization of 281 as a page number in
the book Witchcraft by Charles Williams —
The materialization of 168 as a page number in a
Stephen King novel is somewhat more convincing,
but less convincing than the materialization of Klein's
simple group of of 168 elements in the eightfold cube.
(A sequel to yesterday’s Geometry for Jews)
From this journal on the above UCI posting date — April 6, 2018 —
From this journal on the above lecture date — April 26, 2018 —
illustrations in a post titled Defining Form —
For the relevance of the above material to building blocks,
see Eightfold Cube in this journal.
From The New York Times on June 20, 2018 —
" In a widely read article published early this year on arXiv.org,
a site for scientific papers, Gary Marcus, a professor at
New York University, posed the question:
'Is deep learning approaching a wall?'
He wrote, 'As is so often the case, the patterns extracted
by deep learning are more superficial than they initially appear.' "
See as well an image from posts tagged Quantum Suffering . . .
The time above, 10:06:48 PM July 16, is when I saw …
"What you mean 'we,' Milbank?"
"The whole meaning of the word is
looking into something with clarity and precision,
seeing each component as distinct,
and piercing all the way through
so as to perceive the most fundamental reality
of that thing."
For the word itself, try a Web search on
noteworthy phrases above.
“. . . the utterly real thing in writing is
the only thing that counts . . . ."
— Maxwell Perkins to Ernest Hemingway, Aug. 30, 1935
"168"
— Page number in a 2016 Scribner edition
of Stephen King's IT
The title is from a phrase spoken, notably, by Yul Brynner
to Christopher Plummer in the 1966 film "Triple Cross."
Related structures —
Greg Egan's animated image of the Klein quartic —
For a smaller tetrahedral arrangement, within the Steiner quadruple
system of order 8 modeled by the eightfold cube, see a book chapter
by Michael Huber of Tübingen —
For further details, see the June 29 post Triangles in the Eightfold Cube.
See also, from an April 2013 philosophical conference:
Abstract for a talk at the City University of New York:
The Experience of Meaning Once the question of truth is settled, and often prior to it, what we value in a mathematical proof or conjecture is what we value in a work of lyric art: potency of meaning. An absence of clutter is a feature of such artifacts: they possess a resonant clarity that allows their meaning to break on our inner eye like light. But this absence of clutter is not tantamount to 'being simple': consider Eliot's Four Quartets or Mozart's late symphonies. Some truths are complex, and they are simplified at the cost of distortion, at the cost of ceasing to be truths. Nonetheless, it's often possible to express a complex truth in a way that precipitates a powerful experience of meaning. It is that experience we seek — not simplicity per se , but the flash of insight, the sense we've seen into the heart of things. I'll first try to say something about what is involved in such recognitions; and then something about why an absence of clutter matters to them. 
For the talk itself, see a YouTube video.
The conference talks also appear in a book.
The book begins with an epigraph by Hilbert —
The previous post was suggested by some April 17, 2016, remarks
by James Propp on the eightfold cube.
Propp's remarks included the following:
"Here’s a caveat about my glib earlier remark that
'There are only finitely many numbers ' in a finite field.
It’s a bit of a stretch to call the elements of finite fields
'numbers'. Elements of GF(q ) can be thought of as
the integers mod q when q is prime, and they can be
represented by 0, 1, 2, …, q–1; but when q is a prime
raised to the 2nd power or higher, describing the
elements of GF(q ) is more complicated, and the word
'number' isn’t apt."
Related material —
See also this journal on the date of Propp's remarks — April 17, 2016.
Mystery box merchandise from the 2011 J. J. Abrams film Super 8 —
A mystery box that I prefer —
Click image for some background.
See also Nicht Spielerei .
“Unsheathe your dagger definitions.” — James Joyce, Ulysses
The “triple cross” link in the previous post referenced the eightfold cube
as a structure that might be called the trinity stone .
The title reverses a phrase of Fano —
“costruire (o, dirò meglio immaginare).”
Illustrations of imagining (the Fano plane) and of constructing (the eightfold cube) —
Related material on automorphism groups —
The "Eightfold Cube" structure shown above with Weyl
competes rather directly with the "Eightfold Way" sculpture
shown above with Bryant. The structure and the sculpture
each illustrate Klein's order168 simple group.
Perhaps in part because of this competition, fans of the Mathematical
Sciences Research Institute (MSRI, pronounced "Misery') are less likely
to enjoy, and discuss, the eightcube mathematical structure above
than they are an eightcube mechanical puzzle like the one below.
Note also the earlier (2006) "Design Cube 2x2x2" webpage
illustrating graphic designs on the eightfold cube. This is visually,
if not mathematically, related to the (2010) "Expert's Cube."
Related material —
The seven points of the Fano plane within
"Before time began . . . ."
— Optimus Prime
See Eightfold Froebel.
Tom Wolfe in The Painted Word (1975):
"It is important to repeat that Greenberg and Rosenberg
did not create their theories in a vacuum or simply turn up
with them one day like tablets brought down from atop
Green Mountain or Red Mountain (as B. H. Friedman once
called the two men). As tout le monde understood, they
were not only theories but … hot news,
straight from the studios, from the scene."
Harold Rosenberg in The New Yorker (click to enlarge)—
See also Interality and the Eightfold Cube .
* See the term interality in this journal.
For many synonyms, see
"The Human Seriousness of Interality,"
by Peter Zhang, Grand Valley State University,
China Media Research 11(2), 2015, 93103.
David E. Wellbery on Goethe
From an interview published on 2 November 2017 at
http://literaturwissenschaftberlin.de/interviewwithdavidwellbery/
as later republished in
The logo at left above is that of The Point .
The menu icon at right above is perhaps better
suited to illustrate Verwandlungslehre .
James Propp in the current Math Horizons on the eightfold cube —
For another puerile approach to the eightfold cube,
see Cube Space, 19842003 (Oct. 24, 2008).
Logo from the above webpage —
See also the similar structure of the eightfold cube, and …
Related dialogue from the new film "Unlocked" —
1057
01:31:59,926 –> 01:32:01,301
Nice to have you back, Alice.
1058
01:32:04,009 –> 01:32:05,467
Don't be a stranger.
The previous two posts dealt, rather indirectly, with
the notion of "cube bricks" (Cullinane, 1984) —
Group actions on partitions —
Cube Bricks 1984 —
Another mathematical remark from 1984 —
For further details, see Triangles Are Square.
"The field of geometric group theory emerged from Gromov’s insight
that even mathematical objects such as groups, which are defined
completely in algebraic terms, can be profitably viewed as geometric
objects and studied with geometric techniques."
— Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, 2016:
See also some writings of Gromov from 201516:
For a simpler example than those discussed at MSRI
of both algebraic and geometric techniques applied to
the same group, see a post of May 19, 2017,
"From Algebra to Geometry." That post reviews
an earlier illustration —
For greater depth, see "Eightfold Cube" in this journal.
Continuing the previous post's theme …
Group actions on partitions —
Cube Bricks 1984 —
Related material — Posts now tagged Device Narratives.
Pinterest boards uploaded to the new m759.net/piwigo —
Update of May 2 —
Update of May 3 —
Update of May 8 —
Art Space board created at Pinterest
The contraction of the title is from group actions on
the ninefold square (with the center subsquare fixed)
to group actions on the eightfold cube.
From a post of June 4, 2014 …
At math.stackexchange.com on March 112, 2013:
“Is there a geometric realization of the Quaternion group?” —
The above illustration, though neatly drawn, appeared under the
cloak of anonymity. No source was given for the illustrated group actions.
Possibly they stem from my Log24 posts or notes such as the Jan. 4, 2012,
note on quaternion actions at finitegeometry.org/sc (hence ultimately
from my note “GL(2,3) actions on a cube” of April 5, 1985).
From Wikipedia's Iceberg Theory —
Related material:
The Eightfold Cube and The Quantum Identity —
See also the previous post.
New York Times headline about a death
on Friday, March 3, 2017 —
René Préval, President of Haiti
in 2010 Quake, Dies at 74
See also …
This way to the egress.
See Eightfold 1984 in this journal.
Related material —
"… the object sets up a kind of
frame or space or field
within which there can be epiphany."
"… Instead of an epiphany of being,
we have something like
an epiphany of interspaces."
— Charles Taylor, "Epiphanies of Modernism,"
Chapter 24 of Sources of the Self ,
Cambridge University Press, 1989
"Perhaps every science must start with metaphor
and end with algebra; and perhaps without the metaphor
there would never have been any algebra."
— Max Black, Models and Metaphors ,
Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 1962
Click to enlarge:
Click to enlarge the following (from Cornell U. Press in 1962) —
For a more recent analogical extension at Cornell, see the
Epiphany 2017 post on the eightfold cube and yesterday
evening's post "A Theory of Everything."
The title refers to the Chinese book the I Ching ,
the Classic of Changes .
The 64 hexagrams of the I Ching may be arranged
naturally in a 4x4x4 cube. The natural form of transformations
("changes") of this cube is given by the diamond theorem.
A related post —
"Clearly, there is a spirit of openhandedness in postconceptual art
uses of the term 'Conceptualism.' We can now endow it with a
capital letter because it has grown in scale from its initial designation
of an avantgarde grouping, or various groups in various places, and
has evolved in two further phases. It became something like a movement,
on par with and evolving at the same time as Minimalism. Thus the sense
it has in a book such as Tony Godfrey’s Conceptual Art. … Beyond that,
it has in recent years spread to become a tendency, a resonance within
art practice that is nearly ubiquitous." — Terry Smith, 2011
See also the eightfold cube —
See instances of the title in this journal.
Material related to yesterday evening's post
"Bright and Dark at Christmas" —
The Buddha of Rochester:
See also the Gelman (i.e., GellMann) Prize
in the film "Dark Matter" and the word "Eightfold"
in this journal.
" A fanciful mark is a mark which is invented
for the sole purpose of functioning as a trademark,
e.g., 'Kodak.' "
"… don't take my Kodachrome away." — Paul Simon
Excerpts from James C. Nohrnberg, "The Master of the Myth of Literature: An Interpenetrative Ogdoad for Northrop Frye," Comparative Literature Vol. 53, No. 1 (Winter, 2001), pp. 5882
From page 58 — * P. 22 of Rereading Frye: The Published and Unpublished Works , ed. David Boyd and Imre Salusinszky, Frye Studies [series] (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1998). [Abbreviated as RF .]
From page 62 —
From page 63 —
From page 69 —
From page 71 —
From page 77 — 
“The man who lives in contact with what he believes to be a living Church
is a man always expecting to meet Plato and Shakespeare tomorrow
at breakfast.”
— G. K. Chesterton
Or Sunday dinner.
Platonic 
Shakespearean 
Not to mention Euclid and Picasso.  


In the above pictures, Euclid is represented by 
From Hermann Weyl's 1952 classic Symmetry —
"Galois' ideas, which for several decades remained
a book with seven seals but later exerted a more
and more profound influence upon the whole
development of mathematics, are contained in
a farewell letter written to a friend on the eve of
his death, which he met in a silly duel at the age of
twentyone. This letter, if judged by the novelty and
profundity of ideas it contains, is perhaps the most
substantial piece of writing in the whole literature
of mankind."
Some Galois geometry —
See the previous post for more narrative.
For the director of "Interstellar" and "Inception" —
At the core of the 4x4x4 cube is …
Cover modified.
Click the above image for remarks on
"deep structure" and binary opposition.
See also the eightfold cube.
Yesterday's post The Eightfold Cube in Oslo suggests a review of
posts that mention The Lost Crucible.
(The crucible in question is from a book by Katherine Neville,
The Eight . Any connection with Arthur Miller's play "The Crucible"
is purely coincidental.)
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