Midnight in Paris
See also Mariani in this journal.
"What possessed a generation of young European artists,
and a few Americans, to suddenly suppress recognizable imagery
in pictures and sculptures? Unthinkable at one moment, the strategy
became practically compulsory in the next."
The following remarks may or may not be relevant.
Paul Valéry, "Introduction to the Method of Leonardo da Vinci,"
La Nouvelle Revue , Paris, Vol. 95 (1895)—
"Regarded thus, the ornamental conception is to the individual arts
what mathematics is to the other sciences. …the objects chosen
and arranged with a view to a particular effect seem as if disengaged
from most of their properties and only reassume them in the effect,
in, that is to say, the mind of the detached spectator. It is thus
by means of an abstraction that the work of art can be constructed,
and is more or less easy to define according as the elements borrowed
from reality for it are more or less complex. Inversely it is by a sort of
induction, by the production of mental images, that all works of art are
appreciated, and this production must equally be more or less active,
more or less tiring, according as it is set in motion by a simple
interlacing on a vase or a broken phrase by Pascal."
— Translated by Thomas McGreevy (Valéry's Selected Writings,
New Directions, 1950)
Paul Valéry, "Introduction a la Méthode de Léonard de Vinci,"
La Nouvelle Revue , Paris, Tome 95 (1895), p. 762—
"De ce point de vue, la conception ornementale est aux arts
particuliers ce que la mathématique est aux autres sciences. De
même que les notions physiques de temps, longueur, densité,
masse, etc., ne sont dans les calculs que des quantités homo-
gènes et ne retrouvent leur individualité que dans l'interprétation
des résultats, de même les objets choisis et ordonnés en vue d'un
effet sont comme détachés de la plupart de leurs propriétés et
ne les reprennent que dans cet effet, dans l'esprit non prévenu
du spectateur. C'est donc par une abstraction que l'œuvre d'art
peut se construire, et cette abstraction est plus ou moins éner-
gique, plus ou moins facile à y découvrir, que les éléments em-
pruntés à la réalité en sont des portions plus ou moins com-
plexes. Inversement, c'est par une sorte d'induction, par la
production d'images mentales que toute œuvre d'art s'apprécie;
et cette production doit être également plus ou moins énergique,
plus ou moins fatigante selon qu'un simple entrelacs sur un
vase ou une phrase brisée de Pascal la sollicite."
Obituaries for New Year's Eve—
A link from Christmas Day—
"I never had any hesitation or regrets…."
— Rita Levi-Montalcini, who died today at 103
See also today's previous post and…
Turning the Page:
George Steiner, Real Presences , first published in 1989—
Richard Powers, The Gold Bug Variations , first published in 1991—
Botkin, whatever her gifts as a conversationist, is almost as old
as the rediscovery of Mendel. The other extreme in age,
Joe Lovering, beat a time-honored path out of pure math
into muddy population statistics. Ressler has seen the guy
potting about in the lab, although exactly what the excitable kid
does is anybody's guess. He looks decidedly gumfooted holding
any equipment more corporeal than a chi-square. Stuart takes
him to the Y for lunch, part of a court-your-resources campaign.
He has the sub, Levering the congealed mac and cheese.
Hardly are they seated when Joe whips out a napkin and begins
sketching proofs. He argues that the genetic code, as an
algorithmic formal system, is subject to Gödel's Incompleteness
Theorem. "That would mean the symbolic language of the code
can't be both consistent and complete. Wouldn't that be a kick
in the head?"
Kid talk, competitive showing off, intellectual fantasy.
But Ressler knows what Joe is driving at. He's toyed with similar
ideas, cast in less abstruse terms. We are the by-product of the
mechanism in there. So it must be more ingenious than us.
Anything complex enough to create consciousness may be too
complex for consciousness to understand. Yet the ultimate paradox
is Lovering, crouched over his table napkin, using proofs to
demonstrate proof's limits. Lovering laughs off recursion and takes
up another tack: the key is to find some formal symmetry folded
in this four-base chaos. Stuart distrusts this approach even more.
He picks up the tab for their two untouched lunches, thanking
Lovering politely for the insight.
"The key is to find some formal symmetry…."
"It is not often anyone will hear the phrase 'Galois field' and 'DNA' together…."
See also "Context Part III" in a Log24 post of Sept. 17, 2012.
A mapping problem posed (informally) in 1985
and solved 27 years later, in 2012:
(A note for fans of the recent film Looper (see previous post)—
Hunter S. Thompson in this journal on February 22, 2005 …
Hunter S. Thompson, photos from The New York Times
… and on March 3, 2009.)
Joseph Gordon-Levitt and Bruce Willis in Looper :
Bruce Willis in 12 Monkeys :
See also Big Time in this journal.
From Don DeLillo's novel Point Omega —
I knew what he was, or what he was supposed to be, a defense intellectual, without the usual credentials, and when I used the term it made him tense his jaw with a proud longing for the early weeks and months, before he began to understand that he was occupying an empty seat. "There were times when no map existed to match the reality we were trying to create."
"This is something we do with every eyeblink. Human perception is a saga of created reality. But we were devising entities beyond the agreed-upon limits of recognition or interpretation. Lying is necessary. The state has to lie. There is no lie in war or in preparation for war that can't be defended. We went beyond this. We tried to create new realities overnight, careful sets of words that resemble advertising slogans in memorability and repeatability. These were words that would yield pictures eventually and then become three-dimensional. The reality stands, it walks, it squats. Except when it doesn't."
He didn't smoke but his voice had a sandlike texture, maybe just raspy with age, sometimes slipping inward, becoming nearly inaudible. We sat for some time. He was slouched in the middle of the sofa, looking off toward some point in a high corner of the room. He had scotch and water in a coffee mug secured to his midsection. Finally he said, "Haiku."
I nodded thoughtfully, idiotically, a slow series of gestures meant to indicate that I understood completely.
"Haiku means nothing beyond what it is. A pond in summer, a leaf in the wind. It's human consciousness located in nature. It's the answer to everything in a set number of lines, a prescribed syllable count. I wanted a haiku war," he said. "I wanted a war in three lines. This was not a matter of force levels or logistics. What I wanted was a set of ideas linked to transient things. This is the soul of haiku. Bare everything to plain sight. See what's there. Things in war are transient. See what's there and then be prepared to watch it disappear."
This view of a die's faces 3, 6, and 5, in counter-
clockwise order (see previous post) suggests a way
of labeling the eight corners of a die (or cube):
123, 135, 142, 154, 246, 263, 365, 456.
Here opposite faces of the die sum to 7, and the
three faces meeting at each corner are listed
in counter-clockwise order. (This corresponds
to a labeling of one of MacMahon's* 30 colored cubes.)
A similar vertex-labeling may be used in describing
the automorphisms of the order-8 quaternion group.
For a more literary approach to quaternions, see
Pynchon's novel Against the Day .
* From Peter J. Cameron's weblog:
"The big name associated with this is Major MacMahon,
an associate of Hardy, Littlewood and Ramanujan,
of whom Robert Kanigel said,
His expertise lay in combinatorics, a sort of
glorified dice-throwing, and in it he had made
contributions original enough to be named
a Fellow of the Royal Society.
Glorified dice-throwing, indeed…"
From a recent Harvard University Press philosophical treatise on symmetry—
The treatise corrects Nozick's error of not crediting Weyl's 1952 remarks
on objectivity and symmetry, but repeats Weyl's error of not crediting
Cassirer's extensive 1910 (and later) remarks on this subject.
"The sacramental nature of the space becomes clear…." — Brian O'Doherty
This journal on June 24, 2006—
Robert M. Pirsig, Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance , 1974:
"But what's happening is that each year our old flat earth of
conventional reason becomes less and less adequate to handle
the experiences we have and this is creating widespread feelings
of topsy-turviness. As a result we're getting more and more people
in irrational areas of thought… occultism, mysticism, drug changes
and the like… because they feel the inadequacy of classical reason
to handle what they know are real experiences."
"I'm not sure what you mean by classical reason."
"Analytic reason, dialectic reason. Reason which at the University
is sometimes considered to be the whole of understanding. You've
never had to understand it really. It's always been completely
bankrupt with regard to abstract art. Nonrepresentative art is one of
the root experiences I'm talking about. Some people still condemn it
because it doesn’t make 'sense.' But what's really wrong is not
the art but the 'sense,' the classical reason, which can't grasp it.
People keep looking for branch extensions of reason that will cover
art's more recent occurrences, but the answers aren't in the
branches, they're at the roots."
See also an exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art that opened Dec. 23—
— and an exhibition in this journal of the image "Root Circle."
A meditation on the performance of the late Charles Durning
in the film The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas .
Stars in the Attic
See also A Glass for Klugman :
"… the movement of analogy
begins all over once again."
See A Reappearing Number in this journal.
Figure 1 —
Background: MOG in this journal.
Figure 2 —
Memories, Dreams, Reflections
by C. G. Jung
Recorded and edited By Aniela Jaffé, translated from the German
by Richard and Clara Winston, Vintage Books edition of April 1989
From pages 195-196:
“Only gradually did I discover what the mandala really is:
‘Formation, Transformation, Eternal Mind’s eternal recreation.’*
And that is the self, the wholeness of the personality, which if all
goes well is harmonious, but which cannot tolerate self-deceptions.”
* Faust , Part Two, trans. by Philip Wayne (Harmondsworth,
England, Penguin Books Ltd., 1959), p. 79. The original:
… Gestaltung, Umgestaltung,
Des ewigen Sinnes ewige Unterhaltung….
Jung’s “Formation, Transformation” quote is from the realm of
the Mothers (Faust , Part Two, Act 1, Scene 5: A Dark Gallery).
The speaker is Mephistopheles.
“In alchemical terms, F is descending into the dark, formless
primary matter from which all things are born. Psychologically
he is descending into the deepest regions of the
collective unconscious, to the source of life and all creation.
Mater (mother), matrix (womb, generative substance), and matter
all come from the same root. This is Faust’s next encounter with
the feminine, but it’s obviously of a very different kind than his
relationship with Gretchen.”
The phrase “Gestaltung, Umgestaltung ” suggests a more mathematical
approach to the Unterhaltung . Hence…
Part I: Mothers
“The ultimate, deep symbol of motherhood raised to
the universal and the cosmic, of the birth, sending forth,
death, and return of all things in an eternal cycle,
is expressed in the Mothers, the matrices of all forms,
at the timeless, placeless originating womb or hearth
where chaos is transmuted into cosmos and whence
the forms of creation issue forth into the world of
place and time.”
— Harold Stein Jantz, The Mothers in Faust:
The Myth of Time and Creativity ,
Johns Hopkins Press, 1969, page 37
Part II: Matrices
Part III: Spaces and Hypercubes
Click image for some background.
Part IV: Forms
Forms from the I Ching :
Click image for some background.
Forms from Diamond Theory :
Click image for some background.
Denzel Washington in Deja Vu (2006), directed by Tony Scott—
Related material from five days ago—
"At the point of convergence
by Octavio Paz, translated by
* More precisely, what will be 4.5 days ago at 3:09 AM ET.
The Kernel of the Concept of the Object…
according to the New York Lottery yesterday—
A page numbered 176
A page numbered 187
Click anywhere in the above image for the high culture essay.
See also the December 11th Log24 post Conclusion.
Spidey Goes to Church
… In gratitude for his book Real Presences—
A related shell game:
Click ad for background on the April 10 , 2010, symposium.
Note the black diamond logo of Bostrom's Oxford institute.
The Moore correspondence may be regarded
as an analogy between the 35 partitions of an
8-set into two 4-sets and the 35 lines in the
finite projective space PG(3,2).
Closely related to the Moore correspondence
is a correspondence (or analogy) between the
15 2-subsets of a 6-set and the 15 points of PG(3,2).
An analogy between the two above analogies
is supplied by the exceptional outer automorphism of S6.
"There are three ways an area of mathematics
can be surveyed: by a vast, comprehensive treatise;
by a monograph on a small corner of the field; or by
a monograph on a cross section."
An area of mathematics—
A small corner of the field—
A cross section—
The three ways— December 8 ten years ago.
Today's New York Times on a collector of Japanese art who died on December 8th—
In 1954, she made her first trip to Japan. The visit had been suggested by the architect Walter Gropius, whose disciple Benjamin Thompson was designing a modernist house for her in Oyster Bay, on Long Island.
Gropius, a titan of the Bauhaus school, was deeply influenced by the Japanese aesthetic and wanted her to experience its clean, spare lines firsthand.
See Dec. 8th in this journal for the following clean, spare lines:
For a modern Adam and Eve—
"At the point of convergence
by Octavio Paz, translated by
The "play of mirrors" link above is my own.
See also Log24 posts from the publication date
of the Fitches' Language Evolution—
Happy birthday to the late Alfred Bester.
Image adapted from a 1960 Grove Press
(Evergreen paperback E-219) cover
illustration, apparently by Roy Kuhlman,
for The Spirit of Zen , by Alan Watts
Or: Being There
(A sequel to last night's Lyric Intelligence )
The novel’s prescience is chilling. Six years before the left-wing English
sociologist Michael Young published The Rise of the Meritocracy ,
a dystopian satire that coined that now-ubiquitous final word,
Vonnegut was already there.
Related literary remarks: Congregated Light.
… The sequel to Vibrations
Charles Taylor, "Epiphanies of Modernism,"
Chapter 24 of Sources of the Self
(Cambridge U. Press, 1989, p. 477) —
“… the object sets up a kind of
frame or space or field
within which there can be epiphany.”
… Or: A Funny Thing Happened
on the Way to the Embedding
This journal on the morning of Saturday, Dec. 8, 2012:
Marilyn Monroe and her music coach in 1954,
from last night's online New York Times :
" 'We were very close to making love; I don’t remember
the stage we were at, but I would say half-dressed,'
Mr. Schaefer recalled. He added: 'And all of a sudden
for some reason, Marilyn got these vibrations, and
we went over to the window….' " more »
"Mr. Schaefer died on Saturday at 87 at his home in
Fort Lauderdale, Fla. ….
He [had] coached Monroe through 'Diamonds Are
a Girl’s Best Friend,' her signature number in the
1953 movie 'Gentlemen Prefer Blondes' (he arranged
the music as well)…."
Perhaps on Saturday she returned the favor.
(Continued from 2 PM ET Tuesday)
“… the object sets up a kind of frame or space or field
within which there can be epiphany.”
— Charles Taylor, "Epiphanies of Modernism,"
Chapter 24 of Sources of the Self
(Cambridge U. Press, 1989, p. 477)
"The absolute consonance is a state of chromatic plenitude."
"… the nearest precedent might be found in Becky Sharp .
The opening of the Duchess of Richmond's ball,
with its organization of strong contrasts and
display of chromatic plenitude, presents a schema…."
— Scott Higgins, Harnessing the Technicolor Rainbow:
Color Design in The 1930s , University of Texas Press,
2007, page 142
(Click for wider image.)
"At the still point…" — Four Quartets
"If a man does not keep pace with his companions,
perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer.
Let him step to the music which he hears, however
measured or far away." — Thoreau
In memory of Charles Rosen:
The Magic Square in Doctor Faustus (October 10th, 2012)
Elementary Finite Geometry (August 1st, 2012)
The Space of Horizons (August 7th, 2012)
Chromatic Plenitude (Rosen on Schoenberg)
"The study of musical form is an attempt to understand
the way in which musical gestures can be prolonged
and brought to a conclusion. The work of a great critic
like Charles Rosen can entirely change our
understanding of form— not merely by destroying the
neat categories of traditional musicology, but by
showing that form is a large-scale working-out of forces
that are brought into being by the musical material itself."
— The Aesthetics of Music , by Roger Scruton,
Oxford University Press, 1997 (according to
a free online text version of the book)
The link to Rosen has been added. He died on Sunday.
Click image to enlarge.
Review of an often-cited Leonardo article that is
now available for purchase online…
Authors: Cyril Stanley Smith and Pauline Boucher
Source: Leonardo , Vol. 20, No. 4,
Published by: The MIT Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1578535 .
Smith and Boucher give a well-illustrated account of
the early history of Truchet tiles, but their further remarks
on the mathematics underlying patterns made with
these tiles (see the diamond theorem* of 1976) are
Excerpt from pages 383-384—
"A detailed analysis of Truchet's
patterns touches upon the most fundamental
questions of the relation between
mathematical formalism and the structure
of the material world. Separations
between regions differing in density
require that nothing be as important as
something and that large and small cells of
both must coexist. The aggregation of
unitary choice of directional distinction
at interfaces lies at the root of all being
* This result is about Truchet-tile patterns, but the
underlying mathematics was first discovered by
investigating superimposed patterns of half-circles .
See Half-Circle Patterns at finitegeometry.org.
"Now the serpent was more subtle
than any beast of the field…."
— Genesis 3:1
"Nine is a vine."
— Folk rhyme
Click images for some background.
"… we have taken the first steps
in decoding the uniquely human
fascination with visual patterns…."
— W. Tecumseh Fitch et al. , July 2012
Fitch cites the following as a reference:
The concept of "deep structure," once a popular meme,
has long been abandoned by Chomskians.
A review of deep structure, from the Wikipedia article Cartesian linguistics—
[Numbers in parentheses refer to pages in the original 1966 Harper edition of Chomsky's book Cartesian Linguistics .]
Deep structure vs. surface structure
"Pursuing the fundamental distinction between body and mind, Cartesian linguistics characteristically assumes that language has two aspects" (32). These are namely the sound/character of a linguistic sign and its significance (32). Semantic interpretation or phonetic interpretation may not be identical in Cartesian linguistics (32). Deep structures are often only represented in the mind (a mirror of thought), as opposed to surface structures, which are not.
Deep structures vary less between languages than surface structures. For instance, the transformational operations to derive surface forms of Latin and French may obscure common features of their deep structures (39). Chomsky proposes, "In many respects, it seems to me quite accurate, then, to regard the theory of transformational generative grammar, as it is developing in current work, as essentially a modern and more explicit version of the Port-Royal theory" (39).
Summary of Port Royal Grammar
The Port Royal Grammar is an often cited reference in Cartesian Linguistics and is considered by Chomsky to be a more than suitable example of Cartesian linguistic philosophy. "A sentence has an inner mental aspect (a deep structure that conveys its meaning) and an outer, physical aspect as a sound sequence"***** This theory of deep and surface structures, developed in Port Royal linguistics, meets the formal requirements of language theory. Chomsky describes it in modern terms as "a base system that generates deep structures and a transformational system that maps these into surface structures", essentially a form of transformational grammar akin to modern studies (42).
The corresponding concepts from diamond theory are…
"Deep structure"— The line diagrams indicating the underlying
structure of varying patterns
"A transformational system"— The decomposition theorem
that maps deep structure into surface structure (and vice-versa)
Above: Image from Log24 on Dec. 4th, 2012, at 4:23 PM ET.
… Chomsky vs. Santa
From a New Yorker weblog yesterday—
"Happy Birthday, Noam Chomsky." by Gary Marcus—
"… two titans facing off, with Chomsky, as ever,
defining the contest"
"Chomsky sees himself, correctly, as continuing
a conversation that goes back to Plato, especially
the Meno dialogue, in which a slave boy is
revealed by Socrates to know truths about
geometry that he hadn’t realized he knew."
See Meno Diamond in this journal. For instance, from
the Feast of Saint Nicholas (Dec. 6th) this year—
The Meno Embedding
For related truths about geometry, see the diamond theorem.
For a related contest of language theory vs. geometry,
see pattern theory (Sept. 11, 16, and 17, 2012).
"With the results presented here, we have taken the first steps
in decoding the uniquely human fascination with visual patterns,
what Gombrich* termed our ‘sense of order.’ "
The sorts of patterns discussed in the 2012 paper —
"First steps"? The mathematics underlying such patterns
was presented 35 years earlier, in Diamond Theory.
* See Gombrich-Douat in this journal.
Mr. Bach’s 1985 book about film, “Final Cut:
Dreams and Disaster in the Making of ‘Heaven’s Gate’
a crow’s-nest view of the cultural and personal tensions
on the set— became a best seller and a Hollywood-insider
classic. In his acknowledgments, Mr. Bach said Mr. Lescher
“was the spiritual father to the book and to its author as well.”
The Galois Embedding
"Fail better." — Samuel Beckett, "Worstward Ho"
"West. And slowly." — Stage direction for a Christmas carol
For related reflections, see the Oct. 10 post on
the Dürer magic square in Mann's Doctor Faustus .
Related material: The Revisiting (December 3rd, 2012)
Embedding the Stone (March 23, 2012) —
The Meno Embedding
A review of a post from December 6, 2002,
suggests a review of more recent remarks.
See June 26, 2012: Looking Deeply.
A later post supplies some mathematical
background. See Counterexample (Nov. 27, 2012).
Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer died today at 104.
The 1976 monograph "Diamond Theory" was an example
of "programmed art" in the sense established by, for
instance, Karl Gerstner. The images were produced
according to strict rules, and were in this sense
"programmed," but were drawn by hand.
Now an actual computer program has been written,
based on the Diamond Theory excerpts published
in the Feb. 1977 issue of Computer Graphics and Art
(Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 5-7), that produces copies of some of
these images (and a few malformed images not in
As the suffix indicates, this program is in the
Processing Development Environment language.
It produces the following sketch:
The rationale for selecting and arranging these particular images is not clear,
and some of the images suffer from defects (exercise: which ones?), but the
overall effect of the sketch is pleasing.
For some background for the program, see The ReCode Project.
It is good to learn that the Processing language is well-adapted to making the
images in such sketches. The overall structure of the sketch gives, however,
no clue to the underlying theory in "Diamond Theory."
For some related remarks, see Theory (Sept. 30, 2012).
* For the title, see Darko Fritz, "Notions of the Program in 1960s Art."
(Midnight in the Garden, continued)
E is for Ending …
Cullinane = Cullinan + E
And for Everlast.
A 1976 monograph:
A 2012 mixtape cover:
This link is via a picture, apparently copied from deviantart.com,
of two apes contemplating some psychedelic mushrooms.
The picture is titled "Stoned Ape Theory." The mushrooms in
the picture are apparently taken from an image at DrugNet.net:
For the Dec. 3rd-4th graduate conference
at the University of Cambridge on
"Occultism, Magic, and the History of Art"—
Four novels by Charles Williams—
See also the life, and Dec. 1st death, of a former Chief Justice of South Africa.
Alan Cowell in the The New York Times ,
October 21, 2006—
"Mr. Pinter played the role of Krapp,
a 69-year-old man revisiting
a tape recording he had made at 39…."
See also a weblog post by a 69-year-old man
revisiting a drawing he had made at 39.
For commentary on the original 1981 drawing, see
Diamond-Faceted: Transformations of the Rock.
For the scholars gathered at a graduate conference
today and tomorrow at Cambridge University* on
"Occultism, Magic, and the History of Art"—
Part I: Krapp
Click image for a 2006 New York Times story —
Part II: Hash
"Chess player Elena Akhmilovskaya Donaldson sits
in deep concentration at the U.S. chess championship
in Seattle in 2002. (Greg Gilbert / Seattle Times /
January 5, 2002)"
Linda Shaw, Seattle Times :
"Elena Akhmilovskaya Donaldson, who was once the world's
second-ranked women's chess player and eloped in 1988
with the captain of the U.S. chess team when they were both
playing at a tournament in Greece, has died. She was 55.
Donaldson, who earned the title of international women's
grandmaster, died Nov. 18 in her adopted hometown of Seattle…."
From the Log24 post "Sermon" on the date of Donaldson's death,
Sunday, Nov. 18, 2012—
"You must allow us to play every conceivable combination of chess."
— Marie-Louise von Franz in Number and Time
An October 2011 post titled Realism in Plato's Cave displays
the following image:
Cover illustration: Knight, Death, and the Devil,
by Albrecht Dürer
George Steiner and myself in Closing the Circle, a Log24 post
of Sept. 4, 2009:
“Allegoric associations of death with chess are perennial….”
"Yes, they are."
From About.com —
Click image for larger, clearer original —
"A fully lit Advent wreath with a central Christmas candle
on a home altar, in front of icons of Saint Stephen, Saint Michael,
and Our Lady of Czestochowa. (Photo © Scott P. Richert)"
A magic— indeed, diabolic— square:
For some related religious remarks,
see Raiders of the Lost Matrix.
Image from this journal on November 11th,
darkened in honor of a Harvard professor
who died on that date—
Related material: Lincoln and Darwin at Harvard.
Evening numbers for the New York lottery
yesterday were 182 and 8691.
One interpretation of the latter number is
8/6/91, birth date of the WWW—
|Friday, August 13, 2010
For a Bright Star
m759 @ 2:14 AM
From Wikipedia's timeline for 1991—
August 6 – Tim Berners-Lee announces
For one interpretation of the former number,
see Random Reference.
Source: Rudolf Koch, The Book of Signs
The American Mathematical Society
Lars Hörmander (1931-2012)
Hörmander, who received a Fields Medal in 1962,
Some related material:
See also posts on Damnation Morning and, from the
date of Hörmander's death,
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