Thursday, August 31, 2017

A Conway-Norton-Ryba Theorem

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 1:40 PM

In a book to be published Sept. 5 by Princeton University Press,
John Conway, Simon Norton,  and Alex Ryba present the following
result on order-four magic squares —

A monograph published in 1976, "Diamond Theory," deals with 
more general 4×4 squares containing entries from the Galois fields
GF(2), GF(4), or GF(16).  These squares have remarkable, if not 
"magic," symmetry properties.  See excerpts in a 1977 article.

See also Magic Square and Diamond Theorem in this  journal.

Wednesday, August 23, 2017

The Diamond Theorem in Vancouver

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 2:56 PM

A designer from New Zealand

Happy 10th birthday to the hashtag.

Monday, June 26, 2017

Upgrading to Six

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 9:00 PM

This post was suggested by the previous post — Four Dots —
and by the phrase "smallest perfect" in this journal.

Related material (click to enlarge) —

Detail —

From the work of Eddington cited in 1974 by von Franz —

See also Dirac and Geometry and Kummer in this journal.

Updates from the morning of June 27 —

Ron Shaw on Eddington's triads "associated in conjugate pairs" —

For more about hyperbolic  and isotropic  lines in PG(3,2),
see posts tagged Diamond Theorem Correlation.

For Shaw, in memoriam — See Contrapuntal Interweaving and The Fugue.

Monday, June 19, 2017

Dead End

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 11:24 PM

Group Actions on Partitions- 1985

Google Search- 'group actions on partitions'- June 19, 2017

The above 1985 note was an attempt to view the diamond theorem
in a more general context. I know no more about the note now than 
I did in 1985. The only item in the search results above that is not  
by me (the seventh) seems of little relevance.

Tuesday, June 13, 2017

Found in Translation

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 9:16 PM

The diamond theorem in Denmark —

Tuesday, May 2, 2017

Image Albums

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 1:05 PM

Pinterest boards uploaded to the new m759.net/piwigo

Diamond Theorem 

Diamond Theorem Correlation

Miracle Octad Generator

The Eightfold Cube

Six-Set Geometry

Diamond Theory Cover

Update of May 2 —

Four-Color Decomposition

Binary Galois Spaces

The Galois Tesseract

Update of May 3 —

Desargues via Galois

The Tetrahedral Model

Solomon's Cube

Update of May 8 —

Art Space board created at Pinterest

Friday, April 7, 2017

Personal Identity

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 2:40 PM

From "The Most Notorious Section Phrases," by Sophie G. Garrett
in The Harvard Crimson  on April 5, 2017 —

This passage reminds me of (insert impressive philosophy
that was not in the reading).

This student is just being a show off. We get that they are smart
and well read. Congrats, but please don’t make the rest of the us
look bad in comparison. It should be enough to do the assigned
reading without making connections to Hume’s theory of the self.

Hume on personal identity (the "self")

For my part, when I enter most intimately into what I call myself, I always stumble on some particular perception or other, of heat or cold, light or shade, love or hatred, pain or pleasure. I never can catch myself at any time without a perception, and never can observe any thing but the perception. When my perceptions are removed for any time, as by sound sleep, so long am I insensible of myself, and may truly be said not to exist. And were all my perceptions removed by death, and could I neither think, nor feel, nor see, nor love, nor hate, after the dissolution of my body, I should be entirely annihilated, nor do I conceive what is further requisite to make me a perfect nonentity.
. . . .

I may venture to affirm of the rest of mankind, that they are nothing but a bundle or collection of different perceptions, which succeed each other with an inconceivable rapidity, and are in a perpetual flux and movement. Our eyes cannot turn in their sockets without varying our perceptions. Our thought is still more variable than our sight; and all our other senses and faculties contribute to this change: nor is there any single power of the soul, which remains unalterably the same, perhaps for one moment. The mind is a kind of theatre, where several perceptions successively make their appearance; pass, repass, glide away, and mingle in an infinite variety of postures and situations. There is properly no simplicity in it at one time, nor identity in different, whatever natural propension we may have to imagine that simplicity and identity. The comparison of the theatre must not mislead us. They are the successive perceptions only, that constitute the mind; nor have we the most distant notion of the place where these scenes are represented, or of the materials of which it is composed.

Related material —
Imago Dei  in this journal.

The Ring of the Diamond Theorem

Backstory —
The previous post
and The Crimson Abyss.

Saturday, March 4, 2017

Hidden Figure

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 3:17 AM

From this morning's New York Times  Wire

A cybersecurity-related image from Thursday evening

The diamond theorem correlation at the University of Bradford

Thursday, March 2, 2017

Raiders of the Lost Crucible Continues

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 9:59 PM

Cover, 2005 paperback edition of 'Refiner's Fire,' a 1977 novel by Mark Helprin

Mariner Books paperback, 2005

See, too, this evening's A Common Space
and earlier posts on Raiders of the Lost Crucible.

Also not without relevance —

The diamond theorem correlation at the University of Bradford

Wednesday, February 15, 2017

Warp and Woof

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 3:00 PM

Space —

Space structure —

From Gotay and Isenberg, “The Symplectization of Science,”
Gazette des Mathématiciens  54, 59-79 (1992):

“… what is the origin of the unusual name ‘symplectic’? ….
Its mathematical usage is due to Hermann Weyl who,
in an effort to avoid a certain semantic confusion, renamed
the then obscure ‘line complex group’ the ‘symplectic group.’
… the adjective ‘symplectic’ means ‘plaited together’ or ‘woven.’
This is wonderfully apt….”

IMAGE- A symplectic structure -- i.e. a structure that is symplectic (meaning plaited or woven)

The above symplectic  figure appears in remarks on
the diamond-theorem correlation in the webpage
Rosenhain and Göpel Tetrads in PG(3,2).

Space shuttle —

Related ethnic remarks —

As opposed to Michael  Larsen —

Funny, you don't look  Danish.

Sunday, January 8, 2017

A Theory of Everything

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 7:11 PM

The title refers to the Chinese book the I Ching ,
the Classic of Changes .

The 64 hexagrams of the I Ching  may be arranged
naturally in a 4x4x4 cube. The natural form of transformations
("changes") of this cube is given by the diamond theorem.

A related post —

The Eightfold Cube, core structure of the I Ching

Wednesday, November 23, 2016


Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , — m759 @ 12:31 PM

From the American Mathematical Society (AMS) webpage today —

From the current AMS Notices

Related material from a post of Aug. 6, 2014


(Here "five point sets" should be "five-point sets.")

From Gotay and Isenberg, “The Symplectization of Science,”
Gazette des Mathématiciens  54, 59-79 (1992):

“… what is the origin of the unusual name ‘symplectic’? ….
Its mathematical usage is due to Hermann Weyl who,
in an effort to avoid a certain semantic confusion, renamed
the then obscure ‘line complex group’ the ‘symplectic group.’
… the adjective ‘symplectic’ means ‘plaited together’ or ‘woven.’
This is wonderfully apt….”

IMAGE- A symplectic structure -- i.e. a structure that is symplectic (meaning plaited or woven)

The above symplectic  structure* now appears in the figure
illustrating the diamond-theorem correlation in the webpage
Rosenhain and Göpel Tetrads in PG(3,2).

* The phrase as used here is a deliberate 
abuse of language .  For the real definition of 
“symplectic structure,” see (for instance) 
“Symplectic Geometry,” by Ana Cannas da Silva
(article written for Handbook of Differential
, Vol 2.) To establish that the above
figure is indeed symplectic , see the post 
Zero System of July 31, 2014.

Friday, October 28, 2016

Diamond-Theorem Application

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 1:06 PM


"Protection of digital content from being tapped by intruders is a crucial task in the present generation of Internet world. In this paper, we proposed an implementation of new visual secret sharing scheme for gray level images using diamond theorem correlation. A secret image has broken into 4 × 4 non overlapped blocks and patterns of diamond theorem are applied sequentially to ensure the secure image transmission. Separate diamond patterns are utilized to share the blocks of both odd and even sectors. Finally, the numerical results show that a novel secret shares are generated by using diamond theorem correlations. Histogram representations demonstrate the novelty of the proposed visual secret sharing scheme."

— "New visual secret sharing scheme for gray-level images using diamond theorem correlation pattern structure," by  V. Harish, N. Rajesh Kumar, and N. R. Raajan.

Published in: 2016 International Conference on Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies (ICCPCT).
Date of Conference: 18-19 March 2016. Publisher: IEEE.
Date Added to IEEE Xplore: 04 August 2016

Excerpts —

Related material — Posts tagged Diamond Theorem Correlation.

Tuesday, October 18, 2016


Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 6:00 AM

The term "parametrization," as discussed in Wikipedia,
seems useful for describing labelings that are not, at least
at first glance, of a vector-space  nature.

Examples: The labelings of a 4×4 array by a blank space
plus the 15 two-subsets of a six-set (Hudson, 1905) or by a
blank plus the 5 elements and the 10 two-subsets of a five-set
(derived in 2014 from a 1906 page by Whitehead), or by 
a blank plus the 15 line diagrams of the diamond theorem.

Thus "parametrization" is apparently more general than
the word "coodinatization" used by Hermann Weyl —

“This is the relativity problem:  to fix objectively
a class of equivalent coordinatizations and to
ascertain the group of transformations S
mediating between them.”

— Hermann Weyl, The Classical Groups ,
Princeton University Press, 1946, p. 16

Note, however, that Weyl's definition of "coordinatization"
is not limited to vector-space  coordinates. He describes it
as simply a mapping to a set of reproducible symbols

(But Weyl does imply that these symbols should, like vector-space 
coordinates, admit a group of transformations among themselves
that can be used to describe transformations of the point-space
being coordinatized.)

Tuesday, September 27, 2016

Chomsky and Lévi-Strauss in China

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 7:31 AM

Or:  Philosophy for Jews

From a New Yorker  weblog post dated Dec. 6, 2012 —

"Happy Birthday, Noam Chomsky" by Gary Marcus—

"… two titans facing off, with Chomsky, as ever,
defining the contest"

"Chomsky sees himself, correctly, as continuing
a conversation that goes back to Plato, especially
the Meno dialogue, in which a slave boy is
revealed by Socrates to know truths about
geometry that he hadn’t realized he knew."

Socrates and the slave boy discussed a rather elementary "truth
about geometry" — A diamond inscribed in a square has area 2
(and side the square root of 2) if the square itself has area 4
(and side 2).

Consider that not-particularly-deep structure from the Meno dialogue
in the light of the following…

The following analysis of the Meno diagram from yesterday's
post "The Embedding" contradicts the Lévi-Strauss dictum on
the impossibility of going beyond a simple binary opposition.
(The Chinese word taiji  denotes the fundamental concept in
Chinese philosophy that such a going-beyond is both useful
and possible.)

The matrix at left below represents the feminine yin  principle
and the diamond at right represents the masculine yang .

      From a post of Sept. 22,
  "Binary Opposition Illustrated" —

A symbol of the unity of yin and yang —

Related material:

A much more sophisticated approach to the "deep structure" of the
Meno diagram —

The larger cases —

The diamond theorem

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

Savage Logic

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 9:29 PM

From "The Cerebral Savage," by Clifford Geertz —

(Encounter, Vol. 28 No. 4 (April 1967), pp. 25-32.)

From http://www.diamondspace.net/about.html

The diamond theorem

The Diamond Theorem …

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 11:00 AM

As the Key to All Mythologies

For the theorem of the title, see "Diamond Theorem" in this journal.

"These were heavy impressions to struggle against,
and brought that melancholy embitterment which
is the consequence of all excessive claim: even his
religious faith wavered with his wavering trust in his
own authorship, and the consolations of the Christian
hope in immortality seemed to lean on the immortality
of the still unwritten Key to all Mythologies."

Middlemarch , by George Eliot, Ch. XXIX

Related material from Sunday's print New York Times

Sunday's Log24 sermon

See also the Lévi-Strauss "Key to all Mythologies" in this journal,
as well as the previous post.

Sunday, August 21, 2016


Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 2:00 PM

Fugue No. 21
B-Flat Major
Well-Tempered Clavier Book II
Johann Sebastian Bach
by Timothy A. Smith

Theme and Variations
by Steven H. Cullinane

The beginning of each —

Cullinane, 'Theme and Variations'

Some context —

The diamond theorem

Tuesday, June 21, 2016

The Central Structure

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 8:00 AM

"The central poem is the poem of the whole,
The poem of the composition of the whole"

— Wallace Stevens, "A Primitive like an Orb"

The symmetries of the central four squares in any pattern
from the 4×4 version of the diamond theorem  extend to
symmetries of the entire pattern.  This is true also of the
central eight cubes in the 4×4×4  Solomon's cube .

Friday, June 10, 2016

High Concept

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 9:00 AM


Orwell Meets Waugh

'Space Cross' from the Cullinane diamond theorem

Sunday, May 22, 2016

Sunday School

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 9:00 AM

A less metaphysical approach to a "pre-form" —

From Wallace Stevens, "The Man with the Blue Guitar":


And the color, the overcast blue
Of the air, in which the blue guitar
Is a form, described but difficult,
And I am merely a shadow hunched
Above the arrowy, still strings,
The maker of a thing yet to be made . . . .

"Arrowy, still strings" from the diamond theorem

See also "preforming" and the blue guitar
in a post of May 19, 2010.

Update of 7:11 PM ET:
More generally, see posts tagged May 19 Gestalt.

Wednesday, May 18, 2016

Dueling Formulas

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 12:00 AM

Jung's four-diamond formula vs. Levi-Strauss's 'canonical formula'

Note the echo of Jung's formula in the diamond theorem.

An attempt by Lévi-Strauss to defend his  formula —

"… reducing the life of the mind to an abstract game . . . ." —

For a fictional version of such a game, see Das Glasperlenspiel .

Wednesday, May 4, 2016

Solomon Golomb, 1932-2016

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 4:00 AM

Material related to the previous post, "Symmetry" —

This is the group of "8 rigid motions
generated by reflections in midplanes"
of "Solomon's Cube."

Material from this journal on May 1, the date of Golomb's death —

"Weitere Informationen zu diesem Themenkreis
finden sich unter http://​www.​encyclopediaofma​th.​org/
http://​finitegeometry.​org/​sc/​gen/​coord.​html ."

Tuesday, May 3, 2016


Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 12:00 PM

A note related to the diamond theorem and to the site
Finite Geometry of the Square and Cube —

The last link in the previous post leads to a post of last October whose
final link leads, in turn, to a 2009 post titled Summa Mythologica .

Webpage demonstrating symmetries of 'Solomon's Cube'

Some may view the above web page as illustrating the
Glasperlenspiel  passage quoted here in Summa Mythologica 

“"I suddenly realized that in the language, or at any rate
in the spirit of the Glass Bead Game, everything actually
was all-meaningful, that every symbol and combination of
symbols led not hither and yon, not to single examples,
experiments, and proofs, but into the center, the mystery
and innermost heart of the world, into primal knowledge.
Every transition from major to minor in a sonata, every
transformation of a myth or a religious cult, every classical
or artistic formulation was, I realized in that flashing moment,
if seen with a truly meditative mind, nothing but a direct route
into the interior of the cosmic mystery, where in the alternation
between inhaling and exhaling, between heaven and earth,
between Yin and Yang, holiness is forever being created.”

A less poetic meditation on the above web page* —

"I saw that in the alternation between front and back,
between top and bottom, between left and right,
symmetry is forever being created."

Update of Sept. 5, 2016 — See also a related remark
by Lévi-Strauss in 1955: "…three different readings
become possible: left to right, top to bottom, front 
to back."

* For the underlying mathematics, see a June 21, 1983, research note

Sunday, May 1, 2016

Sunday Appetizer from 1984

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 2:00 PM

Judith Shulevitz in The New York Times
on Sunday, July 18, 2010
(quoted here Aug. 15, 2010) —

“What would an organic Christian Sabbath look like today?”

The 2015 German edition of Beautiful Mathematics ,
a 2011 Mathematical Association of America (MAA) book,
was retitled Mathematische Appetithäppchen —
Mathematical Appetizers . The German edition mentions
the author's source, omitted in the original American edition,
for his section 5.17, "A Group of Operations" (in German,
5.17, "Eine Gruppe von Operationen") —  

Mathematische Appetithäppchen:
Faszinierende Bilder. Packende Formeln. Reizvolle Sätze

Autor: Erickson, Martin —

"Weitere Informationen zu diesem Themenkreis finden sich
unter http://​www.​encyclopediaofma​th.​org/​index.​php/​
und http://​finitegeometry.​org/​sc/​gen/​coord.​html ."

That source was a document that has been on the Web
since 2002. The document was submitted to the MAA
in 1984 but was rejected. The German edition omits the
document's title, and describes it as merely a source for
"further information on this subject area."

The title of the document, "Binary Coordinate Systems,"
is highly relevant to figure 11.16c on page 312 of a book
published four years after the document was written: the 
1988 first edition of Sphere Packings, Lattices and Groups
by J. H. Conway and N. J. A. Sloane —

A passage from the 1984 document —

Tuesday, April 26, 2016


Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 8:31 PM

"… I would drop the keystone into my arch …."

— Charles Sanders Peirce, "On Phenomenology"

" 'But which is the stone that supports the bridge?' Kublai Khan asks."

— Italo Calvino, Invisible Cities, as quoted by B. Elan Dresher.

(B. Elan Dresher. Nordlyd  41.2 (2014): 165-181,
special issue on Features edited by Martin Krämer,
Sandra Ronai and Peter Svenonius. University of Tromsø –
The Arctic University of Norway.

Peter Svenonius and Martin Krämer, introduction to the
Nordlyd  double issue on Features —

"Interacting with these questions about the 'geometric' 
relations among features is the algebraic structure
of the features."

For another such interaction, see the previous post.

This  post may be viewed as a commentary on a remark in Wikipedia

"All of these ideas speak to the crux of Plato's Problem…."

See also The Diamond Theorem at Tromsø and Mere Geometry.

Monday, April 25, 2016

Seven Seals

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 11:00 PM

 An old version of the Wikipedia article "Group theory"
(pictured in the previous post) —

"More poetically "

From Hermann Weyl's 1952 classic Symmetry

"Galois' ideas, which for several decades remained
a book with seven seals  but later exerted a more
and more profound influence upon the whole
development of mathematics, are contained in
a farewell letter written to a friend on the eve of
his death, which he met in a silly duel at the age of
twenty-one. This letter, if judged by the novelty and
profundity of ideas it contains, is perhaps the most
substantial piece of writing in the whole literature
of mankind."

The seven seals from the previous post, with some context —

These models of projective points are drawn from the underlying
structure described (in the 4×4 case) as part of the proof of the
Cullinane diamond theorem .

Friday, April 8, 2016

Ogdoads by Curtis

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , — m759 @ 12:25 PM

As was previously noted here, the construction of the Miracle Octad Generator
of R. T. Curtis in 1974 involved his "folding" the 1×8 octads constructed in 1967
by Turyn into 2×4 form.

This resulted in a way of picturing a well-known correspondence (Conwell, 1910)
between partitions of an 8-set and lines of the projective 3-space PG(3,2).

For some background related to the "ogdoads" of the previous post, see
A Seventh Seal (Sept. 15, 2014).

Monday, February 1, 2016

Historical Note

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 6:29 AM

Possible title

A new graphic approach 
to an old geometric approach
to a new combinatorial approach
to an old algebraic approach
to M24

Monday, December 28, 2015

Mirrors, Mirrors, on the Wall

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 8:00 AM

The previous post quoted Holland Cotter's description of
the late Ellsworth Kelly as one who might have admired 
"the anonymous role of the Romanesque church artist." 

Work of a less anonymous sort was illustrated today by both
The New York Times  and The Washington Post

'Artist Who Shaped Geometries on a Bold Scale' - NY Times

'Ellsworth Kelly, the master of the deceptively simple' - Washington Post

The Post 's remarks are of particular interest:

Philip Kennicott in The Washington Post , Dec. 28, 2015,
on a work by the late Ellsworth Kelly —

“Sculpture for a Large Wall” consisted of 104 anodized aluminum panels, colored red, blue, yellow and black, and laid out on four long rows measuring 65 feet. Each panel seemed different from the next, subtle variations on the parallelogram, and yet together they also suggested a kind of language, or code, as if their shapes, colors and repeating patterns spelled out a basic computer language, or proto-digital message.

The space in between the panels, and the shadows they cast on the wall, were also part of the effect, creating a contrast between the material substance of the art, and the cascading visual and mental ideas it conveyed. The piece was playful, and serious; present and absent; material and imaginary; visually bold and intellectually diaphanous.

Often, with Kelly, you felt as if he offered up some ideal slice of the world, decontextualized almost to the point of absurdity. A single arc sliced out of a circle; a single perfect rectangle; one bold juxtaposition of color or shape. But when he allowed his work to encompass more complexity, to indulge a rhetoric of repetition, rhythmic contrasts, and multiple self-replicating ideas, it began to feel like language, or narrative. And this was always his best mode.

Compare and contrast a 2010 work by Josefine Lyche

IMAGE- The 2x2 case of the diamond theorem as illustrated by Josefine Lyche, Oct. 2010

Lyche's mirrors-on-the-wall installation is titled
"The 2×2 Case (Diamond Theorem)."

It is based on a smaller illustration of my own.

These  variations also, as Kennicott said of Kelly's,
"suggested a kind of language, or code."

This may well be the source of their appeal for Lyche.
For me, however, such suggestiveness is irrelevant to the
significance of the variations in a larger purely geometric

This context is of course quite inaccessible to most art
critics. Steve Martin, however, has a phrase that applies
to both Kelly's and Lyche's installations: "wall power."
See a post of Dec. 15, 2010.

Monday, December 21, 2015

The Eppstein Edit

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 11:40 PM

A Wikipedia edit today by David Eppstein, a professor
at the University of California, Irvine:

See the Fano-plane page before and after the Eppstein edit. 
Eppstein deleted my Dec. 6 Fano 3-space image as well as 
today's Fano-plane image.  He apparently failed to read the
explanatory notes for both the 3-space model and the
2-space model. The research he refers to was  original
(in 1979) but has been published for some time now in the
online Encyclopedia of Mathematics, as he could have
discovered by following a link in the notes for the 3-space

For a related recent display of ignorance, see Hint of Reality.

Happy darkest night.

Saturday, November 21, 2015

The Zero System

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 12:00 AM

For the title phrase, see Encyclopedia of Mathematics .
The zero system  illustrated in the previous post*
should not be confused with the cinematic Zero Theorem .

* More precisely, in the part showing the 15 lines fixed under
   a zero-system polarity in PG(3,2).  For the zero system 
   itself, see diamond-theorem correlation.

Friday, November 13, 2015

A Connection between the 16 Dirac Matrices and the Large Mathieu Group

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 2:45 AM

Note that the six anticommuting sets of Dirac matrices listed by Arfken
correspond exactly to the six spreads in the above complex of 15 projective
lines of PG(3,2) fixed under a symplectic polarity (the diamond theorem
). As I noted in 1986, this correlation underlies the Miracle
Octad Generator of R. T. Curtis, hence also the large Mathieu group.


Arfken, George B., Mathematical Methods for Physicists , Third Edition,
Academic Press, 1985, pages 213-214

Cullinane, Steven H., Notes on Groups and Geometry, 1978-1986

Related material:

The 6-set in my 1986 note above also appears in a 1996 paper on
the sixteen Dirac matrices by David M. Goodmanson —

Background reading:

Ron Shaw on finite geometry, Clifford algebras, and Dirac groups 
(undated compilation of publications from roughly 1994-1995)—

Thursday, October 15, 2015

Contrapuntal Interweaving

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 2:01 AM

The title is a phrase from R. D. Laing's book The Politics of Experience .
(Published in the psychedelic year 1967. The later "contrapuntal interweaving"
below is of a less psychedelic nature.)

An illustration of the "interweaving' part of the title —
The "deep structure" of the diamond theorem:

IMAGE- A symplectic structure -- i.e. a structure that is symplectic (meaning plaited or woven).

The word "symplectic" from the end of last Sunday's (Oct. 11) sermon
describes the "interwoven" nature of the above illustration.

An illustration of the "contrapuntal" part of the title (click to enlarge):


Saturday, October 10, 2015

Nonphysical Entities

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 9:00 PM

Norwegian Sculpture Biennial 2015 catalog, p. 70 —

" 'Ambassadørene' er fysiske former som presenterer
ikk-fysiske fenomener. "

Translation by Google —

" 'Ambassadors' physical forms presents
nonphysical phenomena. "

Related definition —

Are the "line diagrams" of the diamond theorem and
the analogous "plane diagrams" of the eightfold cube
nonphysical entities? Discuss.

Wednesday, August 26, 2015

“The Quality Without a Name”

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 8:00 AM

The title phrase, paraphrased without quotes in
the previous post, is from Christopher Alexander's book
The Timeless Way of Building  (Oxford University Press, 1979).

A quote from the publisher:

"Now, at last, there is a coherent theory
which describes in modern terms
an architecture as ancient as
human society itself."

Three paragraphs from the book (pp. xiii-xiv):

19. Within this process, every individual act
of building is a process in which space gets
differentiated. It is not a process of addition,
in which preformed parts are combined to
create a whole, but a process of unfolding,
like the evolution of an embryo, in which
the whole precedes the parts, and actualy
gives birth to then, by splitting.

20. The process of unfolding goes step by step,
one pattern at a time. Each step brings just one
pattern to life; and the intensity of the result
depends on the intensity of each one of these
individual steps.

21. From a sequence of these individual patterns,
whole buildings with the character of nature
will form themselves within your thoughts,
as easily as sentences.

Compare to, and contrast with, these illustrations of Boolean space:

(See also similar illustrations from Berkeley and Purdue.)

Detail of the above image —

Note the "unfolding," as Christopher Alexander would have it.

These Boolean spaces of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 points
are also Galois  spaces.  See the diamond theorem —

Friday, August 14, 2015

Discrete Space

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 7:24 AM

(A review)

Galois space:

Image-- examples from Galois affine geometry

Counting symmetries of  Galois space:
IMAGE - The Diamond Theorem

The reason for these graphic symmetries in affine Galois space —

symmetries of the underlying projective Galois space:

Sunday, July 26, 2015

Sunday Sermon

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 10:20 AM

"Little emblems of eternity"
— Phrase by Oliver Sacks in today's
New York Times  Sunday Review

Some other emblems —

Diamond Theory version of 'The Square Inch Space' with yin-yang symbol for comparison

Note the color-interchange
 of each emblem
under 180-degree rotation.

Click an emblem for
some background.

Saturday, July 4, 2015


Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , — m759 @ 10:00 AM

Some context for yesterday's post on a symplectic polarity —

This 1986 note may or may not have inspired some remarks 
of Wolf Barth in his foreword to the 1990 reissue of Hudson's
1905 Kummer's Quartic Surface .

See also the diamond-theorem correlation.  

Monday, June 15, 2015

Omega Matrix

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 12:00 PM

See that phrase in this journal.

See also last night's post.

The Greek letter Ω is customarily used to
denote a set that is acted upon by a group.
If the group is the affine group of 322,560
transformations of the four-dimensional
affine space over the two-element Galois
field, the appropriate Ω is the 4×4 grid above.

See the Cullinane diamond theorem.

Tuesday, May 19, 2015

The Lindbergh Manifesto

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 3:24 AM

"Creation is the birth of something, and
something cannot come from nothing."

— Photographer Peter Lindbergh at his website

From a biography of Lindbergh —

" it took Lindbergh awhile to find his true métier.
Born in Krefeld, Germany, in 1944….
Barely out of his teens, he became a painter who
embraced conceptual art and — for reasons he
has since forgotten — adopted the professional
name « Sultan. »   Lindbergh was a few years
short of his 30th birthday when he turned to

— "The Man Who Loves Women," by Pamela Young,
Toronto Globe & Mail , September 19, 1996

A Lindbergh work (at right below) from his conceptual-art days —

For a connection between the above work by Paul Talman and the
above "Mono Type 1" of Lindbergh, see…

Sunday, May 17, 2015

Moon Shadow

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 7:07 AM

IMAGE- The diamond theorem and umbral moonshine

"I'm being followed by a moon shadow…."  — Song lyric

Thursday, May 7, 2015

Paradigm for Pedagogues

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 7:14 PM

Illustrations from a post of Feb. 17, 2011:

Plato’s paradigm in the Meno —


Changed paradigm in the diamond theorem (2×2 case) —


Saturday, April 4, 2015

Harrowing of Hell (continued)

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 3:28 PM

Holy Saturday is, according to tradition, the day of 
the harrowing of Hell.


The above passage on "Die Figuren der vier Modi
im Magischen Quadrat 
" should be read in the context of
a Log24 post from last year's Devil's Night (the night of
October 30-31).  The post, "Structure," indicates that, using
the transformations of the diamond theorem, the notorious
"magic" square of Albrecht Dürer may be transformed
into normal reading order.  That order is only one of
322,560 natural reading orders for any 4×4 array of
symbols. The above four "modi" describe another.

Wednesday, April 1, 2015

Manifest O

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , — m759 @ 4:44 AM

The title was suggested by

The "O" of the title stands for the octahedral  group.

See the following, from http://finitegeometry.org/sc/map.html —

83-06-21 An invariance of symmetry The diamond theorem on a 4x4x4 cube, and a sketch of the proof.
83-10-01 Portrait of O  A table of the octahedral group O using the 24 patterns from the 2×2 case of the diamond theorem.
83-10-16 Study of O  A different way of looking at the octahedral group, using cubes that illustrate the 2x2x2 case of the diamond theorem.
84-09-15 Diamonds and whirls Block designs of a different sort — graphic figures on cubes. See also the University of Exeter page on the octahedral group O.

Saturday, March 14, 2015

Unicode Diamonds

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 9:16 PM

The following figure, intended to display as
a black diamond, was produced with
HTML and Unicode characters. Depending
on the technology used to view it, the figure
may contain gaps or overlaps.


Some variations:





Such combined Unicode characters —

◢  black lower right triangle,
◣  black lower left triangle,
᭘  black upper left triangle,
᭙  black upper right triangle 

— might be used for a text-only version of the Diamond 16 Puzzle
that is more easily programmed than the current version.

The tricky part would be coding the letter-spacing and
line-height to avoid gaps or overlaps within the figures in
a variety of browsers. The w3.org visual formatting model
may or may not be helpful here.

Update of 11:20 PM ET March 15, 2015 — 
Seekers of simplicity should note that there is
a simple program in the Processing.js  language, not  using
such Unicode characters, that shows many random affine
permutations of a 4×4 diamond-theorem array when the
display window is clicked.

Saturday, March 7, 2015

Film and Phenomenology

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 1:18 PM

Continued from All Hallows' Eve, 2014.

Last year's Halloween post displayed the
Dürer print Knight, Death, and the Devil 
(illustrated below on the cover of the book
Film and Phenomenology  by Allan Casebier).

Cover illustration: Durer's 'Knight, Death, and the Devil'

Cover illustration: Knight, Death, and the Devil
by Albrecht Dürer

Some mathematics related to a different Dürer print —

Monday, March 2, 2015

Elements of Design

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 1:28 AM

From "How the Guggenheim Got Its Visual Identity,"
by Caitlin Dover, November 4, 2013 —

For the square and half-square in the above logo
as independent design elements, see 
the Cullinane diamond theorem.

For the circle and half-circle in the logo,
see Art Wars (July 22, 2012).

For a rectangular space that embodies the name of
the logo's design firm 2×4, see Octad in this journal.

Wednesday, February 25, 2015

Words and Images

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 5:30 PM

The words:  "symplectic polarity"—

The images:

The Natural Symplectic Polarity in PG(3,2)

Symmetry Invariance in a Diamond Ring

The Diamond-Theorem Correlation

Picturing the Smallest Projective 3-Space

Quilt Block Designs

Saturday, February 21, 2015

High and Low Concepts

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 4:30 PM

Steven Pressfield on April 25, 2012:

What exactly is High Concept?

Let’s start with its opposite, low concept.
Low concept stories are personal,
idiosyncratic, ambiguous, often European. 
“Well, it’s a sensitive fable about a Swedish
sardine fisherman whose wife and daughter
find themselves conflicted over … ”


Fans of Oslo artist Josefine Lyche know she has
valiantly struggled to find a high-concept approach
to the diamond theorem. Any such approach must,
unfortunately, reckon with the following low
(i.e., not easily summarized) concept —

The Diamond Theorem Correlation:

From left to right





For some backstory, see ProjPoints.gif and "Symplectic Polarity" in this journal.

Wednesday, November 19, 2014

The Eye/Mind Conflict

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 10:25 AM

Harold Rosenberg, "Art and Words," 
The New Yorker , March 29, 1969. From page 110:

"An advanced painting of this century inevitably gives rise
in the spectator to a conflict between his eye and his mind; 
as Thomas Hess has pointed out, the fable of the emperor's 
new clothes is echoed at the birth of every modemist art 
movement. If work in a new mode is to be accepted, the 
eye/mind conflict must be resolved in favor of the mind; 
that is, of the language absorbed into the work. Of itself, 
the eye is incapable of breaking into the intellectual system 
that today distinguishes between objects that are art and 
those that are not. Given its primitive function of 
discriminating among things in shopping centers and on 
highways, the eye will recognize a Noland as a fabric
design, a Judd as a stack of metal bins— until the eye's 
outrageous philistinism has been subdued by the drone of 
formulas concerning breakthroughs in color, space, and 
even optical perception (this, too, unseen by the eye, of 
course). It is scarcely an exaggeration to say that paintings 
are today apprehended with the ears. Miss Barbara Rose, 
once a promoter of striped canvases and aluminum boxes, 
confesses that words are essential to the art she favored 
when she writes, 'Although the logic of minimal art gained 
critical respect, if not admiration, its reductiveness allowed
for a relatively limited art experience.' Recent art criticism 
has reversed earlier procedures: instead of deriving principles 
from what it sees, it teaches the eye to 'see' principles; the 
writings of one of America's influential critics often pivot on 
the drama of how he failed to respond to a painting or 
sculpture the first few times he saw it but, returning to the 
work, penetrated the concept that made it significant and
was then able to appreciate it. To qualify as a member of the 
art public, an individual must be tuned to the appropriate 
verbal reverberations of objects in art galleries, and his 
receptive mechanism must be constantly adjusted to oscillate 
to new vocabularies."

New vocabulary illustrated:

Graphic Design and a Symplectic Polarity —

Background: The diamond theorem
and a zero system .

Monday, November 3, 2014

The Rhetoric of Abstract Concepts

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 12:48 PM

From a post of June 3, 2013:

New Yorker  editor David Remnick at Princeton today
(from a copy of his prepared remarks):

“Finally, speaking of fabric design….”

I prefer Tom and Harold:

Tom Wolfe in The Painted Word 

“I am willing (now that so much has been revealed!)
to predict that in the year 2000, when the Metropolitan
or the Museum of Modern Art puts on the great
retrospective exhibition of American Art 1945-75,
the three artists who will be featured, the three seminal
figures of the era, will be not Pollock, de Kooning, and
Johns-but Greenberg, Rosenberg, and Steinberg.
Up on the walls will be huge copy blocks, eight and a half
by eleven feet each, presenting the protean passages of
the period … a little ‘fuliginous flatness’ here … a little
‘action painting’ there … and some of that ‘all great art
is about art’ just beyond. Beside them will be small
reproductions of the work of leading illustrators of
the Word from that period….”

Harold Rosenberg in The New Yorker  (click to enlarge)

From Gotay and Isenberg, “The Symplectization of Science,”
Gazette des Mathématiciens  54, 59-79 (1992):

“… what is the origin of the unusual name ‘symplectic’? ….
Its mathematical usage is due to Hermann Weyl who,
in an effort to avoid a certain semantic confusion, renamed
the then obscure ‘line complex group’ the ‘symplectic group.’
… the adjective ‘symplectic’ means ‘plaited together’ or ‘woven.’
This is wonderfully apt….”

Symplectic :

IMAGE- A symplectic structure -- i.e. a structure that is symplectic (meaning plaited or woven)

— Steven H. Cullinane,
diamond theorem illustration

Sunday, November 2, 2014

A Singular Place

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 5:09 PM

"Macy’s Herald Square occupies a singular place
in American retailing." — NY Times  today, in print
on page BU1 of the New York edition with the headline:

Makeover on 34th Street .

A Singular Time:

See Remember Me to Herald Square, at noon on
August 21, 2014, and related earlier Log24 posts.

Also on Aug. 21, 2014: from a blog post, 'Tiles,' by
Theo Wright, a British textile designer —

The 24 tile patterns displayed by Wright may be viewed
in their proper mathematical context at …


IMAGE - The Diamond Theorem

Friday, October 31, 2014


Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 3:00 AM

On Devil’s Night

Introducing a group of 322,560 affine transformations of Dürer’s ‘Magic’ Square

IMAGE- Introduction to 322,560 Affine Transformations of Dürer's 'Magic' Square

The four vector-space substructures of digits in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th place,
together with the diamond theorem, indicate that Dürer’s square “minus one”
can be transformed by permutations of rows, columns, and quadrants to a
square with (decimal) digits in the usual numerical order, increasing from
top left to bottom right. Such permutations form a group of order 322,560.

(Continued from Vector Addition in a Finite Field, Twelfth Night, 2013.)

Tuesday, October 28, 2014

Raiders of the Lost Symbol

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 5:00 PM

A print copy of next Sunday’s New York Times Book Review
arrived in today’s mail. From the front-page review:

Marcel Theroux on The Book of Strange New Things ,
a novel by Michel Faber —

“… taking a standard science fiction premise and
unfolding it with the patience and focus of a
tai chi master, until it reveals unexpected
connections, ironies and emotions.”

What is a tai chi master, and what is it that he unfolds?

Perhaps the taijitu  symbol and related material will help.

The Origin of Change

Diamond Theory version of 'The Square Inch Space' with yin-yang symbol for comparison

“Two things of opposite natures seem to depend
On one another, as a man depends
On a woman, day on night, the imagined

On the real. This is the origin of change.
Winter and spring, cold copulars, embrace
And forth the particulars of rapture come.”

Wallace Stevens,
“Notes Toward a Supreme Fiction,”
Canto IV of “It Must Change”

Monday, October 13, 2014

Raiders of the Lost Theorem

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 12:05 PM

(Continued from Nov. 16, 2013.)

The 48 actions of GL(2,3) on a 3×3 array include the 8-element
quaternion group as a subgroup. This was illustrated in a Log24 post,
Hamilton’s Whirligig, of Jan. 5, 2006, and in a webpage whose
earliest version in the Internet Archive is from June 14, 2006.

One of these quaternion actions is pictured, without any reference
to quaternions, in a 2013 book by a Netherlands author whose
background in pure mathematics is apparently minimal:

In context (click to enlarge):

Update of later the same day —

Lee Sallows, Sept. 2011 foreword to Geometric Magic Squares —

“I first hit on the idea of a geometric magic square* in October 2001,**
and I sensed at once that I had penetrated some previously hidden portal
and was now standing on the threshold of a great adventure. It was going
to be like exploring Aladdin’s Cave. That there were treasures in the cave,
I was convinced, but how they were to be found was far from clear. The
concept of a geometric magic square is so simple that a child will grasp it
in a single glance. Ask a mathematician to create an actual specimen and
you may have a long wait before getting a response; such are the formidable
difficulties confronting the would-be constructor.”

* Defined by Sallows later in the book:

“Geometric  or, less formally, geomagic  is the term I use for
a magic square in which higher dimensional geometrical shapes
(or tiles  or pieces ) may appear in the cells instead of numbers.”

** See some geometric  matrices by Cullinane in a March 2001 webpage.

Earlier actual specimens — see Diamond Theory  excerpts published in
February 1977 and a brief description of the original 1976 monograph:

“51 pp. on the symmetries & algebra of
matrices with geometric-figure entries.”

— Steven H. Cullinane, 1977 ad in
Notices of the American Mathematical Society

The recreational topic of “magic” squares is of little relevance
to my own interests— group actions on such matrices and the
matrices’ role as models of finite geometries.

Saturday, September 20, 2014

Symplectic Structure

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 11:30 AM


The fictional zero theorem  of Terry Gilliam's current film
by that name should not be confused with the zero system
underlying the diamond theorem.

Sunday, September 14, 2014


Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 9:26 AM

Structured gray matter:

Graphic symmetries of Galois space:
IMAGE - The Diamond Theorem

The reason for these graphic symmetries in affine  Galois space —

symmetries of the underlying projective  Galois space:

Tuesday, September 9, 2014

Smoke and Mirrors

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , , — m759 @ 11:00 AM

This post is continued from a March 12, 2013, post titled
"Smoke and Mirrors" on art in Tromsø, Norway, and from
a June 22, 2014, post on the nineteenth-century 
mathematicians Rosenhain and Göpel.

The latter day was the day of death for 
mathematician Loren D. Olson, Harvard '64.

For some background on that June 22 post, see the tag 
Rosenhain and Göpel in this journal.

Some background on Olson, who taught at the
University of Tromsø, from the American Mathematical
Society yesterday:

Olson died not long after attending the 50th reunion of the
Harvard Class of 1964.

For another connection between that class (also my own) 
and Tromsø, see posts tagged "Elegantly Packaged."
This phrase was taken from today's (print) 
New York Times  review of a new play titled "Smoke."
The phrase refers here  to the following "package" for 
some mathematical objects that were named after 
Rosenhain and Göpel — a 4×4 array —

For the way these objects were packaged within the array
in 1905 by British mathematician R. W. H. T. Hudson, see
a page at finitegometry.org/sc. For the connection to the art 
in Tromsø mentioned above, see the diamond theorem.

Sunday, August 31, 2014

Sunday School

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 9:00 AM

The Folding

Cynthia Zarin in The New Yorker , issue dated April 12, 2004—

“Time, for L’Engle, is accordion-pleated. She elaborated,
‘When you bring a sheet off the line, you can’t handle it
until it’s folded, and in a sense, I think, the universe can’t
exist until it’s folded — or it’s a story without a book.’”

The geometry of the 4×4 square array is that of the
3-dimensional projective Galois space PG(3,2).

This space occurs, notably, in the Miracle Octad Generator (MOG)
of R. T. Curtis (submitted to Math. Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc.  on
15 June 1974).  Curtis did not, however, describe its geometric
properties. For these, see the Cullinane diamond theorem.

Some history: 

Curtis seems to have obtained the 4×4 space by permuting,
then “folding” 1×8 binary sequences into 4×2 binary arrays.
The original 1×8 sequences came from the method of Turyn
(1967) described by van Lint in his book Coding Theory
(Springer Lecture Notes in Mathematics, No. 201 , first edition
published in 1971). Two 4×2 arrays form each 4×4 square array
within the MOG. This construction did not suggest any discussion
of the geometric properties of the square arrays.

[Rewritten for clarity on Sept. 3, 2014.]

Sunday, August 24, 2014

Symplectic Structure…

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , — m759 @ 12:00 PM

In the Miracle Octad Generator (MOG):

The above details from a one-page note of April 26, 1986, refer to the
Miracle Octad Generator of R. T. Curtis, as it was published in 1976:


From R. T. Curtis (1976). A new combinatorial approach to M24,
Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society ,
79, pp 25-42. doi:10.1017/S0305004100052075.

The 1986 note assumed that the reader would be able to supply, from the
MOG itself, the missing top row of each heavy brick.

Note that the interchange of the two squares in the top row of each
heavy brick induces the diamond-theorem correlation.

Note also that the 20 pictured 3-subsets of a 6-set in the 1986 note
occur as paired complements  in two pictures, each showing 10 of the

This pair of pictures corresponds to the 20 Rosenhain tetrads  among
the 35 lines of PG(3,2), while the picture showing the 2-subsets
corresponds to the 15 Göpel tetrads  among the 35 lines.

See Rosenhain and Göpel tetrads in PG(3,2). Some further background:

Wednesday, August 13, 2014

Symplectic Structure continued

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , , — m759 @ 12:00 PM

Some background for the part of the 2002 paper by Dolgachev and Keum
quoted here on January 17, 2014 —

Related material in this journal (click image for posts) —

Monday, August 11, 2014


Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , — m759 @ 4:00 PM

(Continued from August 9, 2014.)



"Visual forms— lines, colors, proportions, etc.— are just as capable of
articulation , i.e. of complex combination, as words. But the laws that govern
this sort of articulation are altogether different from the laws of syntax that
govern language. The most radical difference is that visual forms are not
. They do not present their constituents successively, but
simultaneously, so the relations determining a visual structure are grasped
in one act of vision."

– Susanne K. LangerPhilosophy in a New Key

For examples, see The Diamond-Theorem Correlation
in Rosenhain and Göpel Tetrads in PG(3,2).

This is a symplectic  correlation,* constructed using the following
visual structure:

IMAGE- A symplectic structure -- i.e. a structure that is symplectic (meaning plaited or woven).

* Defined in (for instance) Paul B. Yale, Geometry and Symmetry ,
Holden-Day, 1968, sections 6.9 and 6.10.

Wednesday, August 6, 2014

Symplectic Structure*

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 1:00 PM

From Gotay and Isenberg, "The Symplectization of Science,"
Gazette des Mathématiciens  54, 59-79 (1992):

"… what is the origin of the unusual name 'symplectic'? ….
Its mathematical usage is due to Hermann Weyl who,
in an effort to avoid a certain semantic confusion, renamed
the then obscure 'line complex group' the 'symplectic group.'
… the adjective 'symplectic' means 'plaited together' or 'woven.'
This is wonderfully apt…."

IMAGE- A symplectic structure -- i.e. a structure that is symplectic (meaning plaited or woven)

The above symplectic  structure** now appears in the figure
illustrating the diamond-theorem correlation in the webpage
Rosenhain and Göpel Tetrads in PG(3,2).

Some related passages from the literature:


* The title is a deliberate abuse of language .
For the real definition of "symplectic structure," see (for instance)
"Symplectic Geometry," by Ana Cannas da Silva (article written for
Handbook of Differential Geometry, vol 2.) To establish that the
above figure is indeed symplectic , see the post Zero System of
July 31, 2014.

** See Steven H. Cullinane, Inscapes III, 1986

Friday, August 1, 2014

The Diamond-Theorem Correlation

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , — m759 @ 2:00 AM

Click image for a larger, clearer version.

IMAGE- The symplectic correlation underlying Rosenhain and Göpel tetrads

Thursday, July 31, 2014

Zero System

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , — m759 @ 6:11 PM

The title phrase (not to be confused with the film 'The Zero Theorem')
means, according to the Encyclopedia of Mathematics,
a null system , and

"A null system is also called null polarity,
a symplectic polarity or a symplectic correlation….
it is a polarity such that every point lies in its own
polar hyperplane."

See Reinhold Baer, "Null Systems in Projective Space,"
Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 51
(1945), pp. 903-906.

An example in PG(3,2), the projective 3-space over the
two-element Galois field GF(2):

IMAGE- The natural symplectic polarity in PG(3,2), illustrating a symplectic structure

See also the 10 AM ET post of Sunday, June 8, 2014, on this topic.

Thursday, July 17, 2014

Paradigm Shift:

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 11:01 AM

Continuous Euclidean space to discrete Galois space*

Euclidean space:

Point, line, square, cube, tesseract

From a page by Bryan Clair

Counting symmetries in Euclidean space:

Galois space:

Image-- examples from Galois affine geometry

Counting symmetries of  Galois space:
IMAGE - The Diamond Theorem

The reason for these graphic symmetries in affine Galois space —

symmetries of the underlying projective Galois space:

* For related remarks, see posts of May 26-28, 2012.

Sunday, June 8, 2014


Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , , — m759 @ 10:00 AM

Some background on the large Desargues configuration

“The relevance of a geometric theorem is determined by what the theorem
tells us about space, and not by the eventual difficulty of the proof.”

— Gian-Carlo Rota discussing the theorem of Desargues

What space  tells us about the theorem :  

In the simplest case of a projective space  (as opposed to a plane ),
there are 15 points and 35 lines: 15 Göpel  lines and 20 Rosenhain  lines.*
The theorem of Desargues in this simplest case is essentially a symmetry
within the set of 20 Rosenhain lines. The symmetry, a reflection
about the main diagonal in the square model of this space, interchanges
10 horizontally oriented (row-based) lines with 10 corresponding
vertically oriented (column-based) lines.

Vide  Classical Geometry in Light of Galois Geometry.

* Update of June 9: For a more traditional nomenclature, see (for instance)
R. Shaw, 1995.  The “simplest case” link above was added to point out that
the two types of lines named are derived from a natural symplectic polarity 
in the space. The square model of the space, apparently first described in
notes written in October and December, 1978, makes this polarity clearly visible:

A coordinate-free approach to symplectic structure

Wednesday, May 14, 2014

Two -Year College

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 9:45 AM

See last night’s pentagram photo and a post from May 13, 2012.

That post links to a little-known video of a 1972 film.
A speech from the film was used by Oslo artist Josefine Lyche as a
voice-over in her  2011 golden-ratio video (with pentagrams) that she
exhibited along with a large, wall-filling copy of some of my own work.
The speech (see video below) is clearly nonsense.

The patterns* Lyche copied are not.

“Who are you, anyway?” 

— Question at 00:41 of 15:00, Rainbow Bridge (Part 5 of 9)
at YouTube, addressed to Baron Bingen as “Mr. Rabbit”

* Patterns exhibited again later, apparently without the Lyche pentagram video.
It turns out, by the way, that Lyche created that video by superimposing
audio from the above “Rainbow Bridge” film onto a section of Disney’s 1959
Donald in Mathmagic Land” (see 7:17 to 8:57 of the 27:33 Disney video).

Thursday, March 27, 2014

Diamond Space

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 2:28 PM


Definition:  A diamond space  — informal phrase denoting
a subspace of AG(6, 2), the six-dimensional affine space
over the two-element Galois field.

The reason for the name:

IMAGE - The Diamond Theorem

Click to enlarge.

Friday, March 21, 2014

Three Constructions of the Miracle Octad Generator

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , , — m759 @ 12:24 PM

IMAGE- Two constructions, by Turyn/Curtis, and by Conway, of the Miracle Octad Generator

See also a Log24 post on this subject from Dec. 14, 2013,
especially (scroll down) the update of March 9, 2014.

Related material on the Turyn-Curtis construction
from the University of Cambridge —

— Slide by “Dr. Parker” — Apparently Richard A. Parker —
Lecture 4, “Discovering M24,” in slides for lectures 1-8 from lectures
at Cambridge in 2010-2011 on “Sporadic and Related Groups.”
See also the Parker lectures of 2012-2013 on the same topic.

A third construction of Curtis’s 35  4×6  1976 MOG arrays would use
Cullinane’s analysis of the 4×4 subarrays’ affine and projective structure,
and point out the fact that Conwell’s 1910 correspondence of the 35
4+4-partitions of an 8-set with the 35 lines of the projective 3-space
over the 2-element field, PG(3, 2), is essentially the same correspondence
as that constituting Curtis’s 1976 MOG.

See The Diamond Theorem,  Finite RelativityGalois Space,
Generating the Octad Generator, and The Klein Correspondence.

Update of March 22-March 23 —

Adding together as (0,1)-matrices over GF(2) the black parts (black
squares as 1’s, all other squares as 0’s) of the 35  4×6 arrays of the 1976
Curtis MOG would then reveal*  the symmetric role played in octads
by what Curtis called the heavy brick , and so reveal also the action of
S3 on the three Curtis bricks that leaves invariant the set of all 759
octads of the S(5, 8, 24) constructed from the 35  MOG arrays.  For more
details of this “by-hand” construction, see Geometry of the 4×4 Square.
For the mathematical properties of the S(5, 8, 24), it is convenient to
have a separate construction,  not  by hand (such as Turyn’s), of the
extended binary Golay code. See the Brouwer preprint quoted above.

* “Then a miracle occurs,” as in the classic 1977 Sidney Harris cartoon.

Illustration of array addition from March 23 —

IMAGE- Discovery of the S_3 action on bricks in the Conwell-Cullinane 'by-hand' approach to octad-building

Saturday, March 15, 2014

Language Game

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 3:00 PM

Cullinane = Cullinan + e

Greene = Green + e

Tuesday, March 11, 2014


Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , — m759 @ 11:16 AM

"… this notion of ‘depth’ is an elusive one
even for a mathematician who can recognize it…."

— G. H. Hardy,  A Mathematician's Apology

Part I:  An Inch Deep

IMAGE- Catch-phrase 'a mile wide and an inch deep' in mathematics education

Part II:  An Inch Wide

See a search for "square inch space" in this journal.

Diamond Theory version of 'The Square Inch Space' with yin-yang symbol for comparison


See also recent posts with the tag depth.

Thursday, February 6, 2014

The Representation of Minus One

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , — m759 @ 6:24 AM

For the late mathematics educator Zoltan Dienes.

"There comes a time when the learner has identified
the abstract content of a number of different games
and is practically crying out for some sort of picture
by means of which to represent that which has been
gleaned as the common core of the various activities."

— Article by "Melanie" at Zoltan Dienes's website

Dienes reportedly died at 97 on Jan. 11, 2014.

From this journal on that date —


A star figure and the Galois quaternion.

The square root of the former is the latter.

Update of 5:01 PM ET Feb. 6, 2014 —

An illustration by Dienes related to the diamond theorem —

See also the above 15 images in


and versions of the 4×4 coordinatization in  The 4×4 Relativity Problem
(Jan. 17, 2014).

Sunday, February 2, 2014

Diamond Theory Roulette

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 11:00 AM

ReCode Project program from Radamés Ajna of São Paulo —

At the program's webpage, click the image to
generate random permutations of rows, columns,
and quadrants
. Note the resulting image's ordinary
or color-interchange symmetry.

Friday, January 17, 2014

The 4×4 Relativity Problem

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , , — m759 @ 11:00 PM

The sixteen-dot square array in yesterday’s noon post suggests
the following remarks.

“This is the relativity problem:  to fix objectively a class of
equivalent coordinatizations and to ascertain the group of
transformations S mediating between them.”

— Hermann Weyl, The Classical Groups ,
Princeton University Press, 1946, p. 16

The Galois tesseract  appeared in an early form in the journal
Computer Graphics and Art , Vol. 2, No. 1, February 1977—

IMAGE- Hypercube and 4x4 matrix from the 1976 'Diamond Theory' preprint, as excerpted in 'Computer Graphics and Art'

The 1977 matrix Q is echoed in the following from 2002—

IMAGE- Dolgachev and Keum, coordinatization of the 4x4 array in 'Birational Automorphisms of Quartic Hessian Surfaces,' AMS Transactions, 2002

A different representation of Cullinane’s 1977 square model of the
16-point affine geometry over the two-element Galois field GF(2)
is supplied by Conway and Sloane in Sphere Packings, Lattices and Groups   
(first published in 1988) :

IMAGE- The Galois tesseract as a four-dimensional vector space, from a diagram by Conway and Sloane in 'Sphere Packings, Lattices, and Groups'

Here a, b, c, d   are basis vectors in the vector 4-space over GF(2).
(For a 1979 version of this vector space, see AMS Abstract 79T-A37.)

See also a 2011 publication of the Mathematical Association of America —

From 'Beautiful Mathematics,' by Martin Erickson, an excerpt on the Cullinane diamond theorem (with source not mentioned)

Wednesday, January 8, 2014

Occupy Space

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 9:00 PM


Three Notes on Design

1.  From the Museum of Modern Art  today—

“It’s a very nice gesture of a kind of new ethos:
To make publicly accessible, unticketed space
that is attractive and has cultural programming,”
Glenn D. Lowry, MoMA’s director, said.

2.  From The New York Times  today—

3.  From myself  last December

IMAGE- Summary of the diamond theorem at 'Diamond Space' website

Thursday, December 5, 2013


Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , , — m759 @ 1:20 AM

Edward Frenkel recently claimed for Robert Langlands
the discovery of a link between two "totally different"
fields of mathematics— number theory and harmonic analysis.
He implied that before Langlands, no relationship between
these fields was known.

See his recent book, and his lecture at the Fields Institute
in Toronto on October 24, 2013.

Meanwhile, in this journal on that date, two math-related
quotations for Stephen King, author of Doctor Sleep

"Danvers is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, 
United States, located on the Danvers River near the
northeastern coast of Massachusetts. Originally known
as Salem Village, the town is most widely known for its
association with the 1692 Salem witch trials. It is also
known for the Danvers State Hospital, one of the state's
19th-century psychiatric hospitals, which was located here." 

"The summer's gone and all the roses fallin' "

For those who prefer their mathematics presented as fact, not fiction—

(Click for a larger image.)

The arrows in the figure at the right are an attempt to say visually that 
the diamond theorem is related to various fields of mathematics.
There is no claim that prior to the theorem, these fields were not  related.

See also Scott Carnahan on arrow diagrams, and Mathematical Imagery.

Wednesday, October 16, 2013

Theme and Variations

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 6:16 PM


IMAGE- The Diamond Theorem

Josefine Lyche’s large wall version of the twenty-four 2×2 variations
above was apparently offered for sale today in Norway —

Click image for more details and click here for a translation.

Monday, September 30, 2013

Interview with Josefine Lyche

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 10:00 PM

For those who understand spoken Norwegian.

I do not. The interview apparently gives some

background on Lyche’s large wall version of

The 2×2 Case (Diamond Theorem) II.

(After Steven H. Cullinane)” 2012

Size: 260 x 380 cm

See also this work as displayed at a Kjærlighet til Oslo page.

(Updated March 30, 2014, to replace dead Kjaerlighet link.)

Tuesday, September 3, 2013

“The Stone” Today Suggests…

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 12:31 PM

A girl's best friend?

The Philosopher's Gaze , by David Michael Levin,
U. of California Press, 1999, in III.5, "The Field of Vision," pp. 174-175—

The post-metaphysical question—question for a post-metaphysical phenomenology—is therefore: Can the perceptual field, the ground of perception, be released  from our historical compulsion to represent it in a way that accommodates our will to power and its need to totalize and reify the presencing of being? In other words: Can the ground be experienced as  ground? Can its hermeneutical way of presencing, i.e., as a dynamic interplay of concealment and unconcealment, be given appropriate  respect in the receptivity of a perception that lets itself  be appropriated by  the ground and accordingly lets  the phenomenon of the ground be  what and how it is? Can the coming-to-pass of the ontological difference that is constitutive of all the local figure-ground differences taking place in our perceptual field be made visible hermeneutically, and thus without violence to its withdrawal into concealment? But the question concerning the constellation of figure and ground cannot be separated from the question concerning the structure of subject and object. Hence the possibility of a movement beyond metaphysics must also think the historical possibility of breaking out of this structure into the spacing of the ontological difference: différance , the primordial, sensuous, ekstatic écart . As Heidegger states it in his Parmenides lectures, it is a question of "the way historical man belongs within the bestowal of being (Zufügung des Seins ), i.e., the way this order entitles him to acknowledge being and to be the only being among all beings to see  the open" (PE* 150, PG** 223. Italics added). We might also say that it is a question of our response-ability, our capacity as beings gifted with vision, to measure up to the responsibility for perceptual responsiveness laid down for us in the "primordial de-cision" (Entscheid ) of the ontological difference (ibid.). To recognize the operation of the ontological difference taking place in the figure-ground difference of the perceptual Gestalt  is to recognize the ontological difference as the primordial Riß , the primordial Ur-teil  underlying all our perceptual syntheses and judgments—and recognize, moreover, that this rift, this  division, decision, and scission, an ekstatic écart  underlying and gathering all our so-called acts of perception, is also the only "norm" (ἀρχή ) by which our condition, our essential deciding and becoming as the ones who are gifted with sight, can ultimately be judged.

* PE: Parmenides  of Heidegger in English— Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992

** PG: Parmenides  of Heidegger in German— Gesamtausgabe , vol. 54— Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 1992

Examples of "the primordial Riß " as ἀρχή  —

For an explanation in terms of mathematics rather than philosophy,
see the diamond theorem. For more on the Riß  as ἀρχή , see
Function Decomposition Over a Finite Field.

Monday, August 12, 2013


Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 12:00 PM

The Galois tesseract  appeared in an early form in the journal
Computer Graphics and Art , Vol. 2, No. 1, February 1977—

IMAGE- Hypercube and 4x4 matrix from the 1976 'Diamond Theory' preprint, as excerpted in 'Computer Graphics and Art'

The Galois tesseract is the basis for a representation of the smallest 
projective 3-space, PG(3,2), that differs from the representation at
Wolfram Demonstrations Project. For the latter, see yesterday's post.

The tesseract representation underlies the diamond theorem, illustrated
below in its earliest form, also from the above February 1977 article—

IMAGE- Steven H. Cullinane, diamond theorem, from 'Diamond Theory,' Computer Graphics and Art, Vol. 2 No. 1, Feb. 1977, pp. 5-7

As noted in a more recent version, the group described by
the diamond theorem is also the group of the 35 square
patterns within the 1976 Miracle Octad Generator  (MOG) of
R. T. Curtis.

Monday, August 5, 2013

Diamond Theorem in ArXiv

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 9:00 PM

The diamond theorem is now in the arXiv

IMAGE- The diamond theorem in the arXiv

Wikipedia Updates

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 12:30 PM

I added links today in the following Wikipedia articles:

The links will probably soon be deleted,
but it seemed worth a try.

Sunday, July 28, 2013


Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 11:00 AM

(Simplicity continued)

"Understanding a metaphor is like understanding a geometrical
truth. Features of various geometrical figures or of various contexts
are pulled into revealing alignment with one another by  the
demonstration or the metaphor.

What is 'revealed' is not that the alignment is possible; rather,
that the alignment is possible reveals the presence of already-
existing shapes or correspondences that lay unnoticed. To 'see' a
proof or 'get' a metaphor is to experience the significance of the
correspondence for what the thing, concept, or figure is ."

— Jan Zwicky, Wisdom & Metaphor , page 36 (left)

Zwicky illustrates this with Plato's diamond figure
​from the Meno  on the facing page— her page 36 (right).

A more sophisticated geometrical figure—

Galois-geometry key to
Desargues' theorem:

   D   E   F
 S'  P Q R
 S  P' Q' R'
 O  P1 Q1 R1

For an explanation, see 
Classical Geometry in Light of Galois Geometry.

Tuesday, July 9, 2013

Vril Chick

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 4:30 AM

Profile picture of "Jo Lyxe" (Josefine Lyche) at Vimeo

Profile picture for "Jo Lyxe" (Josefine Lyche) at Vimeo

Compare to an image of Vril muse Maria Orsitsch.

From the catalog of a current art exhibition
(25 May – 31 August, 2013) in Norway,

Josefine Lyche
Born in 1973 in Bergen, Norway.
Lives and works in Oslo and Berlin.

Keywords (to help place my artwork in the
proper context): Aliens, affine geometry, affine
planes, affine spaces, automorphisms, binary
codes, block designs, classical groups, codes,
coding theory, collineations, combinatorial,
combinatorics, conjugacy classes, the Conwell
correspondence, correlations, Cullinane,
R. T. Curtis, design theory, the diamond theorem,
diamond theory, duads, duality, error correcting
codes, esoteric, exceptional groups,
extraterrestrials, finite fields, finite geometry, finite
groups, finite rings, Galois fields, generalized
quadrangles, generators, geometry, GF(2),
GF(4), the (24,12) Golay code, group actions,
group theory, Hadamard matrices, hypercube,
hyperplanes, hyperspace, incidence structures,
invariance, Karnaugh maps, Kirkman’s schoolgirls
problem, Latin squares, Leech lattice, linear
groups, linear spaces, linear transformations,
Magick, Mathieu groups, matrix theory, Meno,
Miracle Octad Generator, MOG, multiply transitive
groups, occultism, octahedron, the octahedral
group, Orsic, orthogonal arrays, outer automorphisms,
parallelisms, partial geometries,
permutation groups, PG(3,2), Plato, Platonic
solids, polarities, Polya-Burnside theorem, projective
geometry, projective planes, projective
spaces, projectivities, Pythagoras, reincarnation,
Reed-Muller codes, the relativity problem,
reverse engineering, sacred geometry, Singer
cycle, skew lines, Socrates, sporadic simple
groups, Steiner systems, Sylvester, symmetric,
symmetry, symplectic, synthemes, synthematic,
Theosophical Society tesseract, Tessla, transvections,
Venn diagrams, Vril society, Walsh
functions, Witt designs.

(See also the original catalog page.)

Clearly most of this (the non-highlighted parts) was taken
from my webpage Diamond Theory. I suppose I should be
flattered, but I am not thrilled to be associated with the
(apparently fictional) Vril Society.

For some background, see (for instance) 
Conspiracy Theories and Secret Societies for Dummies .

Tuesday, July 2, 2013

Diamond Theorem Updates

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 8:00 PM

My diamond theorem articles at PlanetMath and at 
Encyclopedia of Mathematics have been updated
to clarify the relationship between the graphic square
patterns of the diamond theorem and the schematic
square patterns of the Curtis Miracle Octad Generator.

Tuesday, June 25, 2013

Lexicon (continued)

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 7:20 PM

Online biography of author Cormac McCarthy—

" he left America on the liner Sylvania, intending to visit
the home of his Irish ancestors (a King Cormac McCarthy
built Blarney Castle)." 

Two Years Ago:

Blarney in The Harvard Crimson

Melissa C. Wong, illustration for "Atlas to the Text,"
by Nicholas T. Rinehart:

Thirty Years Ago:

Non-Blarney from a rural outpost—

Illustration for the generalized diamond theorem,
by Steven H. Cullinane: 

See also Barry's Lexicon .

Sunday, June 9, 2013

Sicilian Reflections

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 9:00 AM

(Continued from Sept. 22, 2011)

See Taormina in this journal, and the following photo of "Anne Newton"—

Click photo for context.

Related material:

"Super Overarching" in this journal,
  a group of order 322,560, and

See also the MAA Spectrum  program —

— and an excerpt from the above book:

From 'Beautiful Mathematics,' by Martin Erickson, an excerpt on the Cullinane diamond theorem (with source not mentioned)


Thursday, June 6, 2013

Review Comment Submitted

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 2:19 AM

The Mathematical Association of America has a
submit-a-review form that apparently allows readers
to comment on previously reviewed books.

This morning I submitted the following comment on
Alexander Bogomolny's March 16, 2012, review of 
Martin J. Erickson's Beautiful Mathematics :

In section 5.17, pages 106-108, "A Group of Operations,"
Erickson does not acknowledge any source. This section
is based on the Cullinane diamond theorem. See that
theorem (published in an AMS abstract in 1979) at
PlanetMath.org and EncyclopediaOfMath.org, and
elsewhere on the Web. Details of the proof given by
Erickson may be found in "Binary Coordinate Systems,"
a 1984 article on the Web at

If and when the comment may be published, I do not know.

Update of about 6:45 PM ET June 7:

The above comment is now online at the MAA review site.

Update of about 7 PM ET July 29:

The MAA review site's web address was changed, and the 
above comment was omitted from the page at the new address.
This has now been corrected.

Tuesday, June 4, 2013

Cover Acts

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 11:00 AM

The Daily Princetonian  today:

IMAGE- 'How Jay White, a Neil Diamond cover act, duped Princeton'

A different cover act, discussed here  Saturday:

IMAGE- The diamond theorem affine group of order 322,560, published without acknowledgment of its source by the Mathematical Association of America in 2011

See also, in this journal, the Galois tesseract and the Crosswicks Curse.

"There is  such a thing as a tesseract." — Crosswicks saying

Saturday, June 1, 2013


Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , — m759 @ 4:00 PM

"What we do may be small, but it has
  a certain character of permanence."

— G. H. Hardy, A Mathematician's Apology

The diamond theorem  group, published without acknowledgment
of its source by the Mathematical Association of America in 2011—

IMAGE- The diamond-theorem affine group of order 322,560, published without acknowledgment of its source by the Mathematical Association of America in 2011

Tuesday, May 28, 2013


Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , , , — m759 @ 12:00 PM

The hypercube  model of the 4-space over the 2-element Galois field GF(2):

IMAGE- A hyperspace model of the 4D vector space over GF(2)

The phrase Galois tesseract  may be used to denote a different model
of the above 4-space: the 4×4 square.

MacWilliams and Sloane discussed the Miracle Octad Generator
(MOG) of R. T. Curtis further on in their book (see below), but did not
seem to realize in 1977 that the 4×4 structures within the MOG are
based on the Galois-tesseract model of the 4-space over GF(2).

IMAGE- Octads within the Curtis MOG, which uses a 4x4-array model of the 4D vector space over GF(2)

The thirty-five 4×4 structures within the MOG:

IMAGE- The 35 square patterns within the Curtis MOG

Curtis himself first described these 35 square MOG patterns
combinatorially, (as his title indicated) rather than
algebraically or geometrically:

IMAGE- R. T. Curtis's combinatorial construction of 4x4 patterns within the Miracle Octad Generator

A later book co-authored by Sloane, first published in 1988,
did  recognize the 4×4 MOG patterns as based on the 4×4
Galois-tesseract model.

Between the 1977 and 1988 Sloane books came the diamond theorem.

Update of May 29, 2013:

The Galois tesseract appeared in an early form in the journal
Computer Graphics and Art , Vol. 2, No. 1, February 1977
(the year the above MacWilliams-Sloane book was first published):

IMAGE- Hypercube and 4x4 matrix from the 1976 'Diamond Theory' preprint, as excerpted in 'Computer Graphics and Art'

Sunday, May 19, 2013

Priority Claim

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , , , — m759 @ 9:00 AM

From an arXiv preprint submitted July 18, 2011,
and last revised on March 11, 2013 (version 4):

"By our construction, this vector space is the dual
of our hypercube F24 built on I \ O9. The vector space
structure of the latter, to our knowledge, is first
mentioned by Curtis
in [Cur89]. Hence altogether
our proposition 2.3.4 gives a novel geometric
meaning in terms of Kummer geometry to the known
vector space structure on I \ O9."

[Cur89] reference:
 R. T. Curtis, "Further elementary techniques using
the miracle octad generator," Proc. Edinburgh
Math. Soc. 
32 (1989), 345-353 (received on
July 20, 1987).

— Anne Taormina and Katrin Wendland,
    "The overarching finite symmetry group of Kummer
      surfaces in the Mathieu group 24 ,"
     arXiv.org > hep-th > arXiv:1107.3834

"First mentioned by Curtis…."

No. I claim that to the best of my knowledge, the 
vector space structure was first mentioned by me,
Steven H. Cullinane, in an AMS abstract submitted
in October 1978, some nine years before the
Curtis article.

Update of the above paragraph on July 6, 2013—

No. The vector space structure was described by
(for instance) Peter J. Cameron in a 1976
Cambridge University Press book —
Parallelisms of Complete Designs .
See the proof of Theorem 3A.13 on pages 59 and 60.

The vector space structure as it occurs in a 4×4 array
of the sort that appears in the Curtis Miracle Octad
Generator may first have been pointed out by me,
Steven H. Cullinane,
 in an AMS abstract submitted in
October 1978, some nine years before the Curtis article.

See Notes on Finite Geometry for some background.

See in particular The Galois Tesseract.

For the relationship of the 1978 abstract to Kummer
geometry, see Rosenhain and Göpel Tetrads in PG(3,2).

Sunday, May 12, 2013


Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 7:12 PM

Western Washington University in Bellingham maintains a
website to benefit secondary-school math: MathNEXUS.

The MathNEXUS "website of the week" on April 14, 2013,
was the Diamond 16 Puzzle and its related webpages.

Click on the above image for the April 14 webpage.

Friday, May 10, 2013

Cullinane diamond theorem

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 3:00 PM

A page with the above title has been created at
the Encyclopedia of Mathematics.

How long it will stay there remains to be seen.

Tuesday, April 30, 2013


Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 9:29 AM

Found this morning in a search:

logline  is a one-sentence summary of your script.
It's the short blurb in TV guides that tells you what a movie
is about and helps you decide if you're interested 

The search was suggested by a screenwriting weblog post,
"Loglines: WHAT are you doing?".

What is your story about?
No, seriously, WHAT are you writing about?
Who are the characters? What happens to them?
Where does it take place? What’s the theme?
What’s the style? There are nearly a million
little questions to answer when you set out
to tell a story. But it all starts with one
super, overarching question.
What are you writing about? This is the first
big idea that we pull out of the ether, sometimes
before we even have any characters.
What is your story about?

The screenwriting post was found in an earlier search for
the highlighted phrase.

The screenwriting post was dated December 15, 2009.

What I am doing now  is checking for synchronicity.

This  weblog on December 15, 2009, had a post
titled A Christmas Carol. That post referred to my 1976
monograph titled Diamond Theory .

I guess the script I'm summarizing right now is about
the heart of that theory, a group of 322,560 permutations
that preserve the symmetry of a family of graphic designs.

For that group in action, see the Diamond 16 Puzzle.

The "super overarching" phrase was used to describe
this same group in a different context:

IMAGE- Anne Taormina on 'Mathieu Moonshine' and the 'super overarching symmetry group'

This is from "Mathieu Moonshine," a webpage by Anne Taormina.

A logline summarizing my  approach to that group:

Finite projective geometry explains
the surprising symmetry properties
of some simple graphic designs— 
found, for instance, in quilts.

The story thus summarized is perhaps not destined for movie greatness.

Tuesday, April 2, 2013

Baker on Configurations

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , — m759 @ 11:11 AM

The geometry posts of Sunday and Monday have been
placed in finitegeometry.org as

Classical Geometry in Light of Galois Geometry.

Some background:

See Baker, Principles of Geometry , Vol. II, Note I
(pp. 212-218)—

On Certain Elementary Configurations, and
on the Complete Figure for Pappus's Theorem

and Vol. II, Note II (pp. 219-236)—

On the Hexagrammum Mysticum  of Pascal.

Monday's elucidation of Baker's Desargues-theorem figure
treats the figure as a 15420configuration (15 points, 
4 lines on each, and 20 lines, 3 points on each).

Such a treatment is by no means new. See Baker's notes
referred to above, and 

"The Complete Pascal Figure Graphically Presented,"
a webpage by J. Chris Fisher and Norma Fuller.

What is new in the Monday Desargues post is the graphic
presentation of Baker's frontispiece figure using Galois geometry :
specifically, the diamond theorem square model of PG(3,2).

See also Cremona's kernel, or nocciolo :

Baker on Cremona's approach to Pascal—

"forming, in Cremona's phrase, the nocciolo  of the whole."

IMAGE- Definition of 'nocciolo' as 'kernel'

A related nocciolo :

IMAGE- 'Nocciolo': A 'kernel' for Pascal's Hexagrammum Mysticum: The 15 2-subsets of a 6-set as points in a Galois geometry.

Click on the nocciolo  for some
geometric background.

Tuesday, March 19, 2013

Mathematics and Narrative (continued)

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 10:18 AM

Angels & Demons meet Hudson Hawk

Dan Brown's four-elements diamond in Angels & Demons :

IMAGE- Illuminati Diamond, pp. 359-360 in 'Angels & Demons,' Simon & Schuster Pocket Books 2005, 448 pages, ISBN 0743412397

The Leonardo Crystal from Hudson Hawk :


Mathematics may be used to relate (very loosely)
Dan Brown's fanciful diamond figure to the fanciful
Leonardo Crystal from Hudson Hawk 

"Giving himself a head rub, Hawk bears down on
the three oddly malleable objects. He TANGLES 
and BENDS and with a loud SNAP, puts them together,
forming the Crystal from the opening scene."

— A screenplay of Hudson Hawk

Happy birthday to Bruce Willis.

Saturday, March 16, 2013

The Crosswicks Curse

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 4:00 PM


From the prologue to the new Joyce Carol Oates
novel Accursed

"This journey I undertake with such anticipation
is not one of geographical space but one of Time—
for it is the year 1905 that is my destination.

1905!—the very year of the Curse."

Today's previous post supplied a fanciful link
between the Crosswicks Curse of Oates and
the Crosswicks tesseract  of Madeleine L'Engle.

The Crosswicks Curse according to L'Engle
in her classic 1962 novel A Wrinkle in Time —

"There is  such a thing as a tesseract."

A tesseract is a 4-dimensional hypercube that
(as pointed out by Coxeter in 1950) may also 
be viewed as a 4×4 array (with opposite edges

Meanwhile, back in 1905

For more details, see how the Rosenhain and Göpel tetrads occur naturally
in the diamond theorem model of the 35 lines of the 15-point projective
Galois space PG(3,2).

See also Conwell in this journal and George Macfeely Conwell in the
honors list of the Princeton Class of 1905.

Tuesday, March 12, 2013

Smoke and Mirrors

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 7:00 AM

Sistine Chapel Smoke

Tromso Kunsthall Mirrors

Background for the smoke  image:
A remark by Michelangelo in a 2007 post,  High Concept.

Background for the mirrors  image:
Note the publication date— Mar. 10, 2013.

See that date in this journal and related material.

Tuesday, February 19, 2013


Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 12:24 PM

Yesterday's post Permanence dealt with the cube
as a symmetric model of the finite projective plane
PG(2,3), which has 13 points and 13 lines. The points
and lines of the finite geometry occur in the cube as
the 13 axes of symmetry and the 13 planes through
the center perpendicular to those axes. If the three
axes lying in  a plane that cuts the cube in a hexagon
are supplemented by the axis perpendicular  to that
plane, each plane is associated with four axes and,
dually, each axis is associated with four planes.

My web page on this topic, Cubist Geometries, was
written on February 27, 2010, and first saved to the
Internet Archive on Oct. 4, 2010

For a more recent treatment of this topic that makes
exactly the same points as the 2010 page, see p. 218
of Configurations from a Graphical Viewpoint , by
Tomaž Pisanski and Brigitte Servatius, published by
Springer on Sept. 23, 2012 (date from both Google
and Amazon.com):

For a similar 1998 treatment of the topic, see Burkard Polster's 
A Geometrical Picture Book  (Springer, 1998), pp. 103-104.

The Pisanski-Servatius book reinforces my argument of Jan. 13, 2013,
that the 13 planes through the cube's center that are perpendicular
to the 13 axes of symmetry of the cube should be called the cube's 
symmetry planes , contradicting the usual use of of that term.

That argument concerns the interplay  between Euclidean and
Galois geometry. Pisanski and Servatius (and, in 1998, Polster)
emphasize the Euclidean square and cube as guides* to
describing the structure of a Galois space. My Jan. 13 argument
uses Galois  structures as a guide to re-describing those of Euclid .
(For a similar strategy at a much more sophisticated level,
see a recent Harvard Math Table.)

Related material:  Remarks on configurations in this journal
during the month that saw publication of the Pisanski-Servatius book.

* Earlier guides: the diamond theorem (1978), similar theorems for
  2x2x2 (1984) and 4x4x4 cubes (1983), and Visualizing GL(2,p)
  (1985). See also Spaces as Hypercubes (2012).

Wednesday, January 2, 2013

PlanetMath link

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 2:00 PM

Update of May 27, 2013:
The post below is now outdated. See
http://planetmath.org/cullinanediamondtheorem .


The brief note on the diamond theorem at PlanetMath
disappeared some time ago. Here is a link to its
current URL: http://planetmath.org/?op=getobj;from=lec;id=49.

Update of 3 PM ET Jan. 2, 2013—

Another item recovered from Internet storage:

IMAGE- Miscellanea, 129: 'Triangles are square'- Amer. Math. Monthly, Vol. 91, No. 6, June-July 1984, p. 382

Click on the Monthly  page for some background.

Monday, December 10, 2012

Review of Leonardo Article

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 12:00 PM

Review of an often-cited Leonardo  article that is
now available for purchase online

The Tiling Patterns of Sebastien Truchet 
and the Topology of Structural Hierarchy

Authors: Cyril Stanley Smith and Pauline Boucher

Source: Leonardo , Vol. 20, No. 4,
20th Anniversary Special Issue:
Art of the Future: The Future of Art (1987),
pp. 373-385

Published by: The MIT Press

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1578535 .

Smith and Boucher give a well-illustrated account of
the early history of Truchet tiles, but their further remarks
on the mathematics underlying patterns made with
these tiles (see the diamond theorem* of 1976) are

For instance

Excerpt from pages 383-384—

"A detailed analysis of Truchet's
patterns touches upon the most fundamental
questions of the relation between
mathematical formalism and the structure
of the material world. Separations
between regions differing in density
require that nothing  be as important as
something  and that large and small cells of
both must coexist. The aggregation of
unitary choice of directional distinction
at interfaces lies at the root of all being
and becoming."

* This result is about Truchet-tile patterns, but the
    underlying mathematics was first discovered by
    investigating superimposed patterns of half-circles .
    See Half-Circle Patterns at finitegeometry.org.

Sunday, December 9, 2012

Deep Structure

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , — m759 @ 10:18 AM

The concept of "deep structure," once a popular meme,
has long been abandoned by Chomskians.

It still applies, however, to the 1976 mathematics, diamond theory  ,
underlying the formal patterns discussed in a Royal Society paper
this year.

A review of deep structure, from the Wikipedia article Cartesian linguistics

[Numbers in parentheses refer to pages in the original 1966 Harper edition of Chomsky's book Cartesian Linguistics .]

Deep structure vs. surface structure

"Pursuing the fundamental distinction between body and mind, Cartesian linguistics characteristically assumes that language has two aspects" (32). These are namely the sound/character of a linguistic sign and its significance (32). Semantic interpretation or phonetic interpretation may not be identical in Cartesian linguistics (32). Deep structures are often only represented in the mind (a mirror of thought), as opposed to surface structures, which are not.

Deep structures vary less between languages than surface structures. For instance, the transformational operations to derive surface forms of Latin and French may obscure common features of their deep structures (39). Chomsky proposes, "In many respects, it seems to me quite accurate, then, to regard the theory of transformational generative grammar, as it is developing in current work, as essentially a modern and more explicit version of the Port-Royal theory" (39).

Summary of Port Royal Grammar

The Port Royal Grammar is an often cited reference in Cartesian Linguistics  and is considered by Chomsky to be a more than suitable example of Cartesian linguistic philosophy. "A sentence has an inner mental aspect (a deep structure that conveys its meaning) and an outer, physical aspect as a sound sequence"***** This theory of deep and surface structures, developed in Port Royal linguistics, meets the formal requirements of language theory. Chomsky describes it in modern terms as "a base system that generates deep structures and a transformational system that maps these into surface structures", essentially a form of transformational grammar akin to modern studies (42).

The corresponding concepts from diamond theory are

"Deep structure"— The line diagrams indicating the underlying
structure of varying patterns

"A base system that generates deep structures"—
Group actions on square arrays for instance, on the 4×4 square

"A transformational system"— The decomposition theorem 
that maps deep structure into surface structure (and vice-versa)

Saturday, December 8, 2012

Defining the Contest…

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , , , , — m759 @ 5:48 AM

Chomsky vs. Santa

From a New Yorker  weblog yesterday—

"Happy Birthday, Noam Chomsky." by Gary Marcus—

"… two titans facing off, with Chomsky, as ever,
defining the contest"

"Chomsky sees himself, correctly, as continuing
a conversation that goes back to Plato, especially
the Meno dialogue, in which a slave boy is
revealed by Socrates to know truths about
geometry that he hadn’t realized he knew."

See Meno Diamond in this journal. For instance, from 
the Feast of Saint Nicholas (Dec. 6th) this year—

The Meno Embedding


For related truths about geometry, see the diamond theorem.

For a related contest of language theory vs. geometry,
see pattern theory (Sept. 11, 16, and 17, 2012).

See esp. the Sept. 11 post,  on a Royal Society paper from July 2012
claiming that

"With the results presented here, we have taken the first steps
in decoding the uniquely human  fascination with visual patterns,
what Gombrich* termed our ‘sense of order.’ "

The sorts of patterns discussed in the 2012 paper —

IMAGE- Diamond Theory patterns found in a 2012 Royal Society paper

"First steps"?  The mathematics underlying such patterns
was presented 35 years earlier, in Diamond Theory.

* See Gombrich-Douat in this journal.

Wednesday, December 5, 2012

Arte Programmata*

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 9:30 PM

The 1976 monograph "Diamond Theory" was an example
of "programmed art" in the sense established by, for
instance, Karl Gerstner. The images were produced 
according to strict rules, and were in this sense 
"programmed," but were drawn by hand.

Now an actual computer program has been written,
based on the Diamond Theory excerpts published
in the Feb. 1977 issue of Computer Graphics and Art
(Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 5-7), that produces copies of some of
these images (and a few malformed images not  in
Diamond Theory).

See Isaac Gierard's program at GitHub


As the suffix indicates, this program is in the
Processing Development Environment language.

It produces the following sketch:

IMAGE- Sketch programmed by Isaac Gierard to mimic some of the images of 'Diamond Theory' (© 1976 by Steven H. Cullinane).

The rationale for selecting and arranging these particular images is not clear,
and some of the images suffer from defects (exercise: which ones?), but the 
overall effect of the sketch is pleasing.

For some background for the program, see The ReCode Project.

It is good to learn that the Processing language is well-adapted to making the 
images in such sketches. The overall structure of the sketch gives, however,
no clue to the underlying theory  in "Diamond Theory."

For some related remarks, see Theory (Sept. 30, 2012).

* For the title, see Darko Fritz, "Notions of the Program in 1960s Art."

Thursday, November 29, 2012

Conceptual Art

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 12:09 PM

Quotes from the Bremen site

IMAGE- Steven H. Cullinane, diamond theorem, from 'Diamond Theory,' Computer Graphics and Art, Vol. 2 No. 1, Feb. 1977, pp. 5-7

" 'compArt | center of excellence digital art' is a project
at the University of Bremen, Germany. It is dedicated
to research and development in computing, design,
and teaching. It is supported by Rudolf Augstein Stiftung,
the University of Bremen, and Karin und Uwe Hollweg Stiftung."

See also Stiftung in this journal.

Sunday, November 18, 2012


Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 11:00 AM

Happy birthday to

IMAGE- Margaret Atwood, Kim Wilde, Peta Wilson

Today's sermon, by Marie-Louise von Franz

Number and Time, by Marie-Louise von Franz

For more on the modern physicist analyzed by von Franz,
see The Innermost Kernel , by Suzanne Gieser.

Another modern physicist, Niels Bohr, died
on this date in 1962

Diamond Theory version of 'The Square Inch Space' with yin-yang symbol for comparison

The circle above is marked with a version
of the classic Chinese symbol
adopted as a personal emblem
by Danish physicist Niels Bohr,
leader of the Copenhagen School.

For the square, see the diamond theorem.

"Two things of opposite natures seem to depend
On one another, as a man depends
On a woman, day on night, the imagined
On the real. This is the origin of change.
Winter and spring, cold copulars, embrace
And forth the particulars of rapture come."

— Wallace Stevens,
  "Notes Toward a Supreme Fiction,"
  Canto IV of "It Must Change"

Tuesday, October 23, 2012


Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 6:30 AM


A new Wikipedia page was created on Oct. 9—

"This page was last modified on 9 October 2012 at 19:54."

This, and a long-running musical, suggest…

"Try to remember the kind of September…"

LIFE Magazine for September 6, 1954, provides
one view of the kind of September when I was
twelve years old. (Also that September, Mitt Romney
was seven. President Obama was born later.)

Top of Life Magazine cover, September 6, 1954

This suggests James Joyce's nightmare view of history.

For some other views of 1954, see selected posts in this  journal
 that mention that year.

See also IMDb on Grace Kelly that year, and a related theological
reflection from Holy Cross Day, 2002.

Wednesday, October 10, 2012


Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 1:00 AM

Wikipedia disambiguation page—

IMAGE- Wikipedia disambiguation page for 'Da Milano'

"When you come to a fork in the road…"

IMAGE- Alyssa Milano as a child, with fork

IMAGE- Ambiguation therapy in Milan

For another "shifting reality that shimmered
in a multiplicity of facets," see The Diamond Theorem.


Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 12:00 AM


A new Wikipedia disambiguation page for "Diamond theorem"—

History of the above new Wikipedia page—

See also a Google search for "diamond theorem."

Thursday, September 6, 2012

Decomp Revisited

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 1:11 PM


"Some mathematicians are birds, others are frogs. Birds fly high in the air and survey broad vistas of mathematics out to the far horizon. They delight in concepts that unify our thinking and bring together diverse problems from different parts of the landscape. Frogs live in the mud below and see only the flowers that grow nearby. They delight in the details of particular objects, and they solve problems one at a time."

— Freeman Dyson (See July 22, 2011)

A Rhetorical Question:

Robert Osserman in 2004

"The past decade has been an exciting one in the world of mathematics and a fabulous one (in the literal sense) for mathematicians, who saw themselves transformed from the frogs of fairy tales— regarded with a who-would-want-to-kiss-that aversion, when they were noticed at all— into fascinating royalty, portrayed on stage and screen….

Who bestowed the magic kiss on the mathematical frog?"

A Rhetorical Answer:


Above: Amy Adams in "Sunshine Cleaning"

Related material:

Friday, August 24, 2012

Formal Pattern

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 4:28 PM

(Continued from In Memoriam (Aug. 22), Chapman's Homer (Aug. 23),
and this morning's Colorful Tale)

An informative, but undated, critique of the late Marvin W. Meyer
by April D. DeConick at the website of the Society of Biblical Literature
appeared in more popular form in an earlier New York Times
op-ed piece, "Gospel Truth," dated Dec. 1, 2007.

A check, in accord with Jungian synchronicity, of this  journal
on that date yields a quotation from Plato's Phaedrus  —

"The soul or animate being has the care of the inanimate."

Related verses from T. S. Eliot's Four Quartets

"The detail of the pattern is movement."

"So we moved, and they, in a formal pattern."

Some background from pure mathematics (what the late
William P. Thurston called "the theory of formal patterns")—

The Animated Diamond Theorem.

Sunday, July 29, 2012

The Galois Tesseract

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 11:00 PM


The three parts of the figure in today's earlier post "Defining Form"—

IMAGE- Hyperplanes (square and triangular) in PG(3,2), and coordinates for AG(4,2)

— share the same vector-space structure:

   0     c     d   c + d
   a   a + c   a + d a + c + d
   b   b + c   b + d b + c + d
a + b a + b + c a + b + d   a + b + 
  c + d

   (This vector-space a b c d  diagram is from  Chapter 11 of 
    Sphere Packings, Lattices and Groups , by John Horton
    Conway and N. J. A. Sloane, first published by Springer
    in 1988.)

The fact that any  4×4 array embodies such a structure was implicit in
the diamond theorem (February 1979). Any 4×4 array, regarded as
a model of the finite geometry AG(4, 2), may be called a Galois tesseract.
(So called because of the Galois geometry involved, and because the
16 cells of a 4×4 array with opposite edges identified have the same
adjacency pattern as the 16 vertices of a tesseract (see, for instance,
Coxeter's 1950 "Self-Dual Configurations and Regular Graphs," figures
5 and 6).)

A 1982 discussion of a more abstract form of AG(4, 2):


The above 1982 remarks by Brouwer may or may not have influenced
the drawing of the above 1988 Conway-Sloane diagram.

Sunday, May 13, 2012

Children of Light*

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 8:28 AM

IMAGE- Nassau Presbyterian scripture for May 13, 2012- 1 John 5:1-5.

An earlier verse in 1 John—

1 John 1:5 "This then is the message
which we have heard of him,
and declare unto you, that God is light,
and in him is no darkness at all."

Catechism from a different cult—

"Who are you, anyway?" 

— Question at 00:41 of 15:01,
Rainbow Bridge (Part 5 of 9) at YouTube

See also the video accompanying artist Josefine Lyche's version
of the 2×2 case of the diamond theorem.

* Title of a Robert Stone novel

Monday, March 26, 2012


Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 2:00 PM

(The title is a nod to Peter Woit's recent post "Nothingness Smackdown.")

"To wrestle new mediums to the mat of specificity has been a preoccupation of mine since the inception of October , the magazine I founded in 1976 with Annette Michelson, the first issue of which carried my essay 'Video and Narcissism' which attempts to tie the essence of video to the spectacular nature of mirrors."

Rosalind Krauss, 2008, introduction to Perpetual Inventory  (MIT Press, 2010)

Related material— The video art and mirror art of Josefine Lyche.

See also Krauss's essay on video in Perpetual Inventory—  "Video: The Aesthetics of Narcissism" (first published as "Video and Narcissism," October , no. 1 (Spring 1976))—

"In The Language of the Self , Lacan begins by characterizing the space of the therapeutic transaction as an extraordinary void created by the silence of the analyst. Into this void the patient projects the monologue of his own recitation, which Lacan calls 'the monumental construct of his narcissism.'"

— and related remarks on October  and the void quoted here March 10 in "Boo Boo Boo."

Saturday, March 24, 2012

The David Waltz…

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 9:00 AM

In Turing's Cathedral

"At the still point…" — T. S. Eliot

In memory of David L. Waltz, artificial-intelligence pioneer,
who died Thursday, March 22, 2012—

  1. The Log24 post of March 22 on the square-triangle theorem
  2. The March 18 post, Square-Triangle Diamond
  3. Remarks from the BBC on linguistic embedding
    that begin as follows—
         "If we draw a large triangle and embed smaller triangles in it,
          how does it look?"—
    and include discussion of a South American "tribe called Piranha" [sic ]
  4. The result of a Cartoon Bank search suggested by no. 3 above—
    (Click image for some related material.)
  5. A suggestion from the Cartoon Bank—
    IMAGE- 'Try our new grid view.'
  6. The following from the First of May, 2010

    The Nine Divisions of Heaven–

    Image-- Routledge Encyclopedia of Taoism, Vol. I, on the Nine Heavens, 'jiutian,' ed. by Fabrizio Pregadio

    Some context–

    IMAGE- The 3x3 ('ninefold') square as Chinese 'Holy Field'

    "This pattern is a square divided into nine equal parts.
    It has been called the 'Holy Field' division and
    was used throughout Chinese history for many
    different purposes, most of which were connected
    with things religious, political, or philosophical."

    – The Magic Square: Cities in Ancient China,
    by Alfred Schinz, Edition Axel Menges, 1996, p. 71

  7. The phrase "embedding the stone" —

Sunday, March 18, 2012

Square-Triangle Diamond

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 5:01 AM

The diamond shape of yesterday's noon post
is not wholly without mathematical interest …

The square-triangle theorem

"Every triangle is an n -replica" is true
if and only if n  is a square.

IMAGE- Square-to-diamond (rhombus) shear in proof of square-triangle theorem

The 16 subdiamonds of the above figure clearly
may be mapped by an affine transformation
to 16 subsquares of a square array.

(See the diamond lattice  in Weyl's Symmetry .)

Similarly for any square n , not just 16.

There is a group of 322,560 natural transformations
that permute the centers  of the 16 subsquares
in a 16-part square array. The same group may be
viewed as permuting the centers  of the 16 subtriangles
in a 16-part triangular array.

(Updated March 29, 2012, to correct wording and add Weyl link.)

Saturday, February 18, 2012


Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 7:35 PM

From the current Wikipedia article "Symmetry (physics)"—

"In physics, symmetry includes all features of a physical system that exhibit the property of symmetry—that is, under certain transformations, aspects of these systems are 'unchanged', according to a particular observation. A symmetry of a physical system is a physical or mathematical feature of the system (observed or intrinsic) that is 'preserved' under some change.

A family of particular transformations may be continuous  (such as rotation of a circle) or discrete  (e.g., reflection of a bilaterally symmetric figure, or rotation of a regular polygon). Continuous and discrete transformations give rise to corresponding types of symmetries. Continuous symmetries can be described by Lie groups while discrete symmetries are described by finite groups (see Symmetry group)."….

"A discrete symmetry is a symmetry that describes non-continuous changes in a system. For example, a square possesses discrete rotational symmetry, as only rotations by multiples of right angles will preserve the square's original appearance."

Note the confusion here between continuous (or discontinuous) transformations  and "continuous" (or "discontinuous," i.e. "discrete") groups .

This confusion may impede efforts to think clearly about some pure mathematics related to current physics— in particular, about the geometry of spaces made up of individual units ("points") that are not joined together in a continuous manifold.

For an attempt to forestall such confusion, see Noncontinuous Groups.

For related material, see Erlanger and Galois as well as the opening paragraphs of Diamond Theory

Symmetry is often described as invariance under a group of transformations. An unspoken assumption about symmetry in Euclidean 3-space is that the transformations involved are continuous.

Diamond theory rejects this assumption, and in so doing reveals that Euclidean symmetry may itself  be invariant under rather interesting groups of non-continuous (and a-symmetric) transformations. (These might be called noncontinuous  groups, as opposed to so-called discontinuous  (or discrete ) symmetry groups. See Weyl's Symmetry .)

For example, the affine group A on the 4-space over the 2-element field has a natural noncontinuous and asymmetric but symmetry-preserving action on the elements of a 4×4 array. (Details)

(Version first archived on March 27, 2002)

Update of Sunday, February 19, 2012—

The abuse of language by the anonymous authors
of the above Wikipedia article occurs also in more
reputable sources. For instance—

IMAGE- Brading and Castellani, 'Symmetries in Physics'- Four main sections include 'Continuous Symmetries' and 'Discrete Symmetries.'

Some transformations referred to by Brading and Castellani
and their editees as "discrete symmetries" are, in fact, as
linear transformations of continuous spaces, themselves
continuous  transformations.

This unfortunate abuse of language is at least made explicit
in a 2003 text, Mathematical Perspectives on Theoretical
(Nirmala Prakash, Imperial College Press)—

"… associated[*] with any given symmetry there always exists
a continuous or a discrete group of transformations….
A symmetry whose associated group is continuous (discrete)
is called a continuous  (discrete ) symmetry ." — Pp. 235, 236

[* Associated how?]

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