Monday, February 25, 2019

The Deep Six

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , , , — m759 @ 11:00 AM

". . . this notion of ‘depth’ is an elusive one
even for a mathematician who can recognize it. . . ."

— G. H. Hardy, A Mathematician's Apology

See Six-Set in this journal.

Saturday, March 22, 2014

Two Types of Symmetry

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 12:00 PM


IMAGE- Weber hexads in 'Kummer's Quartic Surface'

IMAGE- Ohashi on the 192 Weber hexads

Literary (also from May 18, 2010)

IMAGE- Heraclitus, 'Immortals mortal, mortals immortal'- 'athanatoi thnetoi, thnetoi athanatoi'

Friday, March 21, 2014

Three Constructions of the Miracle Octad Generator

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 12:24 PM

IMAGE- Two constructions, by Turyn/Curtis, and by Conway, of the Miracle Octad Generator

See also a Log24 post on this subject from Dec. 14, 2013,
especially (scroll down) the update of March 9, 2014.

Related material on the Turyn-Curtis construction
from the University of Cambridge —

— Slide by “Dr. Parker” — Apparently Richard A. Parker —
Lecture 4, “Discovering M24,” in slides for lectures 1-8 from lectures
at Cambridge in 2010-2011 on “Sporadic and Related Groups.”
See also the Parker lectures of 2012-2013 on the same topic.

A third construction of Curtis’s 35  4×6  1976 MOG arrays would use
Cullinane’s analysis of the 4×4 subarrays’ affine and projective structure,
and point out the fact that Conwell’s 1910 correspondence of the 35
4+4-partitions of an 8-set with the 35 lines of the projective 3-space
over the 2-element field, PG(3, 2), is essentially the same correspondence
as that constituting Curtis’s 1976 MOG.

See The Diamond Theorem,  Finite RelativityGalois Space,
Generating the Octad Generator, and The Klein Correspondence.

Update of March 22-March 23 —

Adding together as (0,1)-matrices over GF(2) the black parts (black
squares as 1’s, all other squares as 0’s) of the 35  4×6 arrays of the 1976
Curtis MOG would then reveal*  the symmetric role played in octads
by what Curtis called the heavy brick , and so reveal also the action of
S3 on the three Curtis bricks that leaves invariant the set of all 759
octads of the S(5, 8, 24) constructed from the 35  MOG arrays.  For more
details of this “by-hand” construction, see Geometry of the 4×4 Square.
For the mathematical properties of the S(5, 8, 24), it is convenient to
have a separate construction,  not  by hand (such as Turyn’s), of the
extended binary Golay code. See the Brouwer preprint quoted above.

* “Then a miracle occurs,” as in the classic 1977 Sidney Harris cartoon.

Illustration of array addition from March 23 —

IMAGE- Discovery of the S_3 action on bricks in the Conwell-Cullinane 'by-hand' approach to octad-building

Thursday, March 20, 2014

Classical Galois

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 12:26 PM

IMAGE- The large Desargues configuration and Desargues's theorem in light of Galois geometry

Click image for more details.

To enlarge image, click here.

Tuesday, March 11, 2014


Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 11:16 AM

"… this notion of ‘depth’ is an elusive one
even for a mathematician who can recognize it…."

— G. H. Hardy,  A Mathematician's Apology

Part I:  An Inch Deep

IMAGE- Catch-phrase 'a mile wide and an inch deep' in mathematics education

Part II:  An Inch Wide

See a search for "square inch space" in this journal.

Diamond Theory version of 'The Square Inch Space' with yin-yang symbol for comparison


See also recent posts with the tag depth.

Sunday, March 9, 2014

Hesse’s Table

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 9:00 PM

From “Quartic Curves and Their Bitangents,” by
Daniel Plaumann, Bernd Sturmfels, and Cynthia Vinzant,
arXiv:1008.4104v2  [math.AG] 10 Jan 2011 —

The table mentioned (from 1855) is…

Exercise: Discuss the relationship, if any, to
the Miracle Octad Generator of R. T. Curtis.


Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 11:00 AM

On Theta Characteristics
IMAGE- Saavedra-Rivano, 'Finite Geometries in the Theory of Theta Characteristics' (1976)

— From Zentralblatt-math.org.  8 PM ET update:  See also a related search.

IMAGE- Saavedra-Rivano, Ph.D. U. de Paris 1972, advisor Grothendieck

Some may prefer a more politically correct— and simpler— sermon.

Background for the simpler sermon: Quilt Geometry.

Saturday, March 8, 2014

Conwell Heptads in Eastern Europe

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 11:07 AM

“Charting the Real Four-Qubit Pauli Group
via Ovoids of a Hyperbolic Quadric of PG(7,2),”
by Metod Saniga, Péter Lévay and Petr Pracna,
arXiv:1202.2973v2 [math-ph] 26 Jun 2012 —

P. 4— “It was found that +(5,2) (the Klein quadric)
has, up to isomorphism, a unique  one — also known,
after its discoverer, as a Conwell heptad  [18].
The set of 28 points lying off +(5,2) comprises
eight such heptads, any two having exactly one
point in common.”

P. 11— “This split reminds us of a similar split of
63 points of PG(5,2) into 35/28 points lying on/off
a Klein quadric +(5,2).”

[18] G. M. Conwell, Ann. Math. 11 (1910) 60–76

A similar split occurs in yesterday’s Kummer Varieties post.
See the 63 = 28 + 35 vectors of R8 discussed there.

For more about Conwell heptads, see The Klein Correspondence,
Penrose Space-Time, and a Finite Model

For my own remarks on the date of the above arXiv paper
by Saniga et. al., click on the image below —

Walter Gropius

Friday, March 7, 2014

Kummer Varieties

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 11:20 AM

The Dream of the Expanded Field continues

Image-- The Dream of the Expanded Field

From Klein's 1893 Lectures on Mathematics —

"The varieties introduced by Wirtinger may be called Kummer varieties…."
E. Spanier, 1956

From this journal on March 10, 2013 —

From a recent paper on Kummer varieties,
arXiv:1208.1229v3 [math.AG] 12 Jun 2013,
"The Universal Kummer Threefold," by
Qingchun Ren, Steven V Sam, Gus Schrader, and Bernd Sturmfels —

IMAGE- 'Consider the 6-dimensional vector space over the 2-element field,' from 'The Universal Kummer Threefold'

Two such considerations —

IMAGE- 'American Hustle' and Art Cube

IMAGE- Cube for study of I Ching group actions, with Jackie Chan and Nicole Kidman 

Update of 10 PM ET March 7, 2014 —

The following slides by one of the "Kummer Threefold" authors give
some background related to the above 64-point vector space and
to the Weyl group of type E7(E7):

The Cayley reference is to "Algorithm for the characteristics of the
triple ϑ-functions," Journal für die Reine und Angewandte
Mathematik  87 (1879): 165-169. <http://eudml.org/doc/148412>.
To read this in the context of Cayley's other work, see pp. 441-445
of Volume 10 of his Collected Mathematical Papers .

Wednesday, March 5, 2014

Rosenhain and Göpel Again

Filed under: General — Tags: , — m759 @ 8:25 PM

IMAGE- Rosenhain, Göpel, and hyperelliptic curves

See also Rosenhain and Göpel in the Wikipedia
article Kummer surface, and in this journal.

Related material: user @hyperelliptic on Twitter.

Saturday, February 15, 2014

Rosenhain and Göpel

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 11:00 PM


See The Oslo Version in this journal and the New Year’s Day 2014 post.
The pictures of the 56 spreads in that post (shown below) are based on
the 20 Rosenhain and 15 Göpel tetrads that make up the 35 lines of
PG(3,2), the finite projective 3-space over the 2-element Galois field.

IMAGE- The 56 spreads in PG(3,2)

Click for a larger image.

Monday, February 10, 2014

Mystery Box III: Inside, Outside

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , , , — m759 @ 2:28 PM

(Continued from Mystery Box, Feb. 4, and Mystery Box II, Feb. 5.)

The Box

Inside the Box

Outside the Box

For the connection of the inside  notation to the outside  geometry,
see Desargues via Galois.

(For a related connection to curves  and surfaces  in the outside
geometry, see Hudson's classic Kummer's Quartic Surface  and
Rosenhain and Göpel Tetrads in PG(3,2).)

Saturday, December 14, 2013

Beautiful Mathematics

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 7:59 PM

The title, which I dislike, is taken from a 2011 publication
of the MAA, also sold by Cambridge University Press.

Some material relevant to the title adjective:

"For those who have learned something of higher mathematics, nothing could be more natural than to use the word 'beautiful' in connection with it. Mathematical beauty, like the beauty of, say, a late Beethoven quartet, arises from a combination of strangeness and inevitability. Simply defined abstractions disclose hidden quirks and complexities. Seemingly unrelated structures turn out to have mysterious correspondences. Uncanny patterns emerge, and they remain uncanny even after being underwritten by the rigor of logic."— Jim Holt, opening of a book review in the Dec. 5, 2013, issue of The New York Review of Books

Some relevant links—

The above list was updated on Jan. 31, 2014, to include the
"Strangeness" and "Hidden quirks" links.  See also a post of
​Jan. 31, 2014.

Update of March 9, 2014 —

The link "Simply defined abstractions" is to the construction of the Steiner
system S(5, 8, 24) described by R. T. Curtis in his 1976 paper defining the
Miracle Octad Generator. It should be noted that this construction is due
to Richard J. Turyn, in a 1967 Sylvania research report. (See Emily Jennings's
talk of 1 Nov. 2012.) Compare  the Curtis construction, written in 1974,
with the Turyn construction of 1967 as described in Sphere Packings, Lattices
and Groups , by J. H. Conway and N. J. A. Sloane (first published in 1988).

Thursday, September 5, 2013

Moonshine II

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , , , , — m759 @ 10:31 AM

(Continued from yesterday)

The foreword by Wolf Barth in the 1990 Cambridge U. Press
reissue of Hudson's 1905 classic Kummer's Quartic Surface
covers some of the material in yesterday's post Moonshine.

The distinction that Barth described in 1990 was also described, and illustrated,
in my 1986 note "Picturing the smallest projective 3-space."  The affine 4-space
over the the finite Galois field GF(2) that Barth describes was earlier described—
within a 4×4 array like that pictured by Hudson in 1905— in a 1979 American
Mathematical Society abstract, "Symmetry invariance in a diamond ring."

"The distinction between Rosenhain and Goepel tetrads
is nothing but the distinction between isotropic and
non-isotropic planes in this affine space over the finite field."

The 1990 paragraph of Barth quoted above may be viewed as a summary
of these facts, and also of my March 17, 2013, note "Rosenhain and Göpel
Tetrads in PG(3,2)

Powered by WordPress