Wednesday, September 23, 2020

Geometry of Even Subsets

Filed under: General — Tags: , — m759 @ 12:06 AM

Various posts here on the geometry underlying the Mathieu group M24
are now tagged with the phrase “Geometry of Even Subsets.”

For example, a post with this diagram . . .

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Geometry of 6 and 8

Filed under: General — Tags: , , — m759 @ 4:03 AM

Just as
the finite space PG(3,2) is
the geometry of the 6-set, so is
the finite space PG(5,2)
the geometry of the 8-set.*


* Consider, for the 6-set, the 32
(16, modulo complementation)
0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-subsets,
and, for the 8-set, the 128
(64, modulo complementation)
0-, 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-subsets.

Update of 11:02 AM ET the same day:

See also Eightfold Geometry, a note from 2010.

Thursday, June 21, 2018

Dirac and Geometry (continued)

"Just fancy a scale model of Being 
made out of string and cardboard."

Nanavira Thera, 1 October 1957,
on a model of Kummer's Quartic Surface
mentioned by Eddington

"… a treatise on Kummer's quartic surface."

The "super-mathematician" Eddington did not see fit to mention
the title or the author of the treatise he discussed.

See Hudson + Kummer in this  journal.

See also posts tagged Dirac and Geometry.

Sunday, December 10, 2017


Google search result for Plato + Statesman + interlacing + interweaving

See also Symplectic in this journal.

From Gotay and Isenberg, “The Symplectization of Science,”
Gazette des Mathématiciens  54, 59-79 (1992):

“… what is the origin of the unusual name ‘symplectic’? ….
Its mathematical usage is due to Hermann Weyl who,
in an effort to avoid a certain semantic confusion, renamed
the then obscure ‘line complex group’ the ‘symplectic group.’
… the adjective ‘symplectic’ means ‘plaited together’ or ‘woven.’
This is wonderfully apt….”

IMAGE- A symplectic structure -- i.e. a structure that is symplectic (meaning plaited or woven)

The above symplectic  figure appears in remarks on
the diamond-theorem correlation in the webpage
Rosenhain and Göpel Tetrads in PG(3,2). See also
related remarks on the notion of  linear  (or line ) complex
in the finite projective space PG(3,2) —

Anticommuting Dirac matrices as spreads of projective lines

Ron Shaw on the 15 lines of the classical generalized quadrangle W(2), a general linear complex in PG(3,2)

Friday, December 23, 2016

Memory, History, Geometry

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 6:48 PM


Code Blue

Update of 7:04 PM ET —

The source of the 404 message in the browsing history above
was the footnote below:

Friday, December 16, 2016

Memory, History, Geometry

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 9:48 AM

These are Rothko's Swamps .

See a Log24 search for related meditations.

For all three topics combined, see Coxeter —

" There is a pleasantly discursive treatment 
of Pontius Pilate’s unanswered question
‘What is truth?’ "

— Coxeter, 1987, introduction to Trudeau’s
     The Non-Euclidean Revolution

Update of 10 AM ET —  Related material, with an elementary example:

Posts tagged "Defining Form." The example —

IMAGE- Triangular models of the 4-point affine plane A and 7-point projective plane PA

Tuesday, March 1, 2016

Art and Geometry

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 1:20 PM

See "Behind the Glitter" (a recent magazine article
on Oslo artist Josefine Lyche), and the much more
informative web page Contact (from Noplace, Oslo).

From the latter —

"Semiotics is a game of ascribing meaning, or content, to mere surface."

Monday, December 14, 2015

Dirac and Geometry

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 10:30 AM


See a post by Peter Woit from Sept. 24, 2005 — Dirac's Hidden Geometry.

The connection, if any, with recent Log24 posts on Dirac and Geometry
is not immediately apparent.  Some related remarks from a novel —

From Broken Symmetries by Paul Preuss
(first published by Simon and Schuster in 1983) —

"He pondered the source of her fascination with the occult, which sooner or later seemed to entangle a lot of thoughtful people who were not already mired in establishmentarian science or religion. It was  the religious impulse, at base. Even reason itself could function as a religion, he supposed— but only for those of severely limited imagination. 

He’d toyed with 'psi' himself, written a couple of papers now much quoted by crackpots, to his chagrin. The reason he and so many other theoretical physicists were suckers for the stuff was easy to understand— for two-thirds of a century an enigma had rested at the heart of theoretical physics, a contradiction, a hard kernel of paradox. Quantum theory was inextricable from the uncertainty relations. 

The classical fox knows many things, but the quantum-mechanical hedgehog knows only one big thing— at a time. 'Complementarity,' Bohr had called it, a rubbery notion the great professor had stretched to include numerous pairs of opposites. Peter Slater was willing to call it absurdity, and unlike some of his older colleagues who, following in Einstein’s footsteps, demanded causal explanations for everything (at least in principle), Peter had never thirsted after 'hidden variables' to explain what could not be pictured. Mathematical relationships were enough to satisfy him, mere formal relationships which existed at all times, everywhere, at once. It was a thin nectar, but he was convinced it was the nectar of the gods. 

The psychic investigators, on the other hand, demanded to know how  the mind and the psychical world were related. Through ectoplasm, perhaps? Some fifth force of nature? Extra dimensions of spacetime? All these naive explanations were on a par with the assumption that psi is propagated by a species of nonlocal hidden variables, the favored explanation of sophisticates; ignotum per ignotius

'In this connection one should particularly remember that the human language permits the construction of sentences which do not involve any consequences and which therefore have no content at all…' The words were Heisenberg’s, lecturing in 1929 on the irreducible ambiguity of the uncertainty relations. They reminded Peter of Evan Harris Walker’s ingenious theory of the psi force, a theory that assigned psi both positive and negative values in such a way that the mere presence of a skeptic in the near vicinity of a sensitive psychic investigation could force null results. Neat, Dr. Walker, thought Peter Slater— neat, and totally without content. 

One had to be willing to tolerate ambiguity; one had to be willing to be crazy. Heisenberg himself was only human— he’d persuasively woven ambiguity into the fabric of the universe itself, but in that same set of 1929 lectures he’d rejected Dirac’s then-new wave equations with the remark, 'Here spontaneous transitions may occur to the states of negative energy; as these have never been observed, the theory is certainly wrong.' It was a reasonable conclusion, and that was its fault, for Dirac’s equations suggested the existence of antimatter: the first antiparticles, whose existence might never have been suspected without Dirac’s crazy results, were found less than three years later. 

Those so-called crazy psychics were too sane, that was their problem— they were too stubborn to admit that the universe was already more bizarre than anything they could imagine in their wildest dreams of wizardry."

Particularly relevant

"Mathematical relationships were enough to satisfy him,
mere formal relationships which existed at all times,
everywhere, at once."

Some related pure  mathematics

Anticommuting Dirac matrices as spreads of projective lines

Friday, November 27, 2015

Einstein and Geometry

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 2:01 PM

(A Prequel to Dirac and Geometry)

"So Einstein went back to the blackboard.
And on Nov. 25, 1915, he set down
the equation that rules the universe.
As compact and mysterious as a Viking rune,
it describes space-time as a kind of sagging mattress…."

— Dennis Overbye in The New York Times  online,
     November 24, 2015

Some pure  mathematics I prefer to the sagging Viking mattress —

Readings closely related to the above passage —

Thomas Hawkins, "From General Relativity to Group Representations:
the Background to Weyl's Papers of 1925-26
," in Matériaux pour
l'histoire des mathématiques au XXe siècle:
Actes du colloque
à la mémoire de Jean Dieudonné
, Nice, 1996  (Soc. Math.
de France, Paris, 1998), pp. 69-100.

The 19th-century algebraic theory of invariants is discussed
as what Weitzenböck called a guide "through the thicket
of formulas of general relativity."

Wallace Givens, "Tensor Coordinates of Linear Spaces," in
Annals of Mathematics  Second Series, Vol. 38, No. 2, April 1937, 
pp. 355-385.

Tensors (also used by Einstein in 1915) are related to 
the theory of line complexes in three-dimensional
projective space and to the matrices used by Dirac
in his 1928 work on quantum mechanics.

For those who prefer metaphors to mathematics —

"We acknowledge a theorem's beauty
when we see how the theorem 'fits' in its place,
how it sheds light around itself, like a Lichtung ,
a clearing in the woods." 
— Gian-Carlo Rota, Indiscrete Thoughts ,
Birkhäuser Boston, 1997, page 132

Rota fails to cite the source of his metaphor.
It is Heidegger's 1964 essay, "The End of Philosophy
and the Task of Thinking" —

"The forest clearing [ Lichtung ] is experienced
in contrast to dense forest, called Dickung  
in our older language." 
— Heidegger's Basic Writings 
edited by David Farrell Krell, 
Harper Collins paperback, 1993, page 441

Monday, November 23, 2015

Dirac and Line Geometry

Some background for my post of Nov. 20,
"Anticommuting Dirac Matrices as Skew Lines" —

First page of 'Configurations in Quantum Mechanics,' by E.M. Bruins, 1959

His earlier paper that Bruins refers to, "Line Geometry
and Quantum Mechanics," is available in a free PDF.

For a biography of Bruins translated by Google, click here.

For some additional historical background going back to
Eddington, see Gary W. Gibbons, "The Kummer
Configuration and the Geometry of Majorana Spinors,"
pages 39-52 in Oziewicz et al., eds., Spinors, Twistors,
Clifford Algebras, and Quantum Deformations:
Proceedings of the Second Max Born Symposium held
near Wrocław, Poland, September 1992
 . (Springer, 2012,
originally published by Kluwer in 1993.)

For more-recent remarks on quantum geometry, see a
paper by Saniga cited in today's update to my Nov. 20 post

Friday, April 25, 2014

Quilt Geometry

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 7:55 PM

or: The Dead Hand Shot

Library Thing book list: 'An Awkward Lie' and 'A Piece of Justice'

See also Tumbling Blocks Quilt and Springtime for Vishnu.

Saturday, November 10, 2012

Battlefield Geometry

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 5:24 AM


Click to enlarge.

Related material from Wikipedia— Baseball metaphors for sex.

"Build it…"

Friday, November 9, 2012

Battlefield Geometry

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 3:28 PM

(Continued from Sept. 11, 2007)

CIA Director David Petraeus resigns, cites extramarital affair

Trouble with the curve?

Wednesday, April 28, 2010

Eightfold Geometry

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 11:07 AM

Image-- The 35 partitions of an 8-set into two 4-sets

Image-- Analysis of structure of the 35 partitions of an 8-set into two 4-sets

Image-- Miracle Octad Generator of R.T. Curtis

Related web pages:

Miracle Octad Generator,
Generating the Octad Generator,
Geometry of the 4×4 Square

Related folklore:

“It is commonly known that there is a bijection between the 35 unordered triples of a 7-set [i.e., the 35 partitions of an 8-set into two 4-sets] and the 35 lines of PG(3,2) such that lines intersect if and only if the corresponding triples have exactly one element in common.” –“Generalized Polygons and Semipartial Geometries,” by F. De Clerck, J. A. Thas, and H. Van Maldeghem, April 1996 minicourse, example 5 on page 6

The Miracle Octad Generator may be regarded as illustrating the folklore.

Update of August 20, 2010–

For facts rather than folklore about the above bijection, see The Moore Correspondence.

Thursday, April 22, 2010

Mere Geometry

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 1:00 PM

Image-- semeion estin ou meros outhen

Image-- Euclid's definition of 'point'

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Mereology (from the Greek μερος, ‘part’) is the theory of parthood relations: of the relations of part to whole and the relations of part to part within a whole. Its roots can be traced back to the early days of philosophy, beginning with the Presocratics….”

A non-Euclidean* approach to parts–

Image-- examples from Galois affine geometry

Corresponding non-Euclidean*
projective points —

Image-- The smallest Galois geometries

Richard J. Trudeau in The Non-Euclidean Revolution, chapter on “Geometry and the Diamond Theory of Truth”–

“… Plato and Kant, and most of the philosophers and scientists in the 2200-year interval between them, did share the following general presumptions:

(1) Diamonds– informative, certain truths about the world– exist.
(2) The theorems of Euclidean geometry are diamonds.

Presumption (1) is what I referred to earlier as the ‘Diamond Theory’ of truth. It is far, far older than deductive geometry.”

Trudeau’s book was published in 1987. The non-Euclidean* figures above illustrate concepts from a 1976 monograph, also called “Diamond Theory.”

Although non-Euclidean,* the theorems of the 1976 “Diamond Theory” are also, in Trudeau’s terminology, diamonds.

* “Non-Euclidean” here means merely “other than  Euclidean.” No violation of Euclid’s parallel postulate is implied.

Friday, February 7, 2020


Filed under: General — Tags: , , — m759 @ 1:05 PM

The 15  2-subsets of a 6-set correspond to the 15 points of PG(3,2).
(Cullinane, 1986*)

The 35  3-subsets of a 7-set correspond to the 35 lines of PG(3,2).
(Conwell, 1910)

The 56  3-subsets of an 8-set correspond to the 56 spreads of PG(3,2).
(Seidel, 1970)

Each correspondence above may have been investigated earlier than
indicated by the above dates , which are the earliest I know of.

See also Correspondences in this journal.

* The above 1986 construction of PG(3,2) from a 6-set also appeared
in the work of other authors in 1994 and 2002 . . .

Addendum at 5:09 PM suggested by an obituary today for Stephen Joyce:

See as well the word correspondences  in
James Joyce and the Hermetic Tradition,” by William York Tindall
(Journal of the History of Ideas , Jan. 1954).

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Harmonic-Analysis Building Blocks

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 1:14 PM

See also The Eightfold Cube.

Duke Blocks

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 12:38 AM

The Wall Street Journal  Jan. 24 on a Duke University professor —

"Dr. Daubechies is best known for her work on mathematical structures
called wavelets; her discoveries have been so influential, in fact, that
these are referred to in the field as Daubechies wavelets. She describes
them as 'mathematical building blocks' that can be used to extract the 
essential elements of images or signals without losing their quality—
in effect, a new universal language for scientists and researchers."

See also this  journal on January 20-21, and …

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Eye-in-the-Pyramid Points

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 2:06 PM

"it remains only to choose a pleasing arrangement of {1, 2, … 7}
to label the eye-in-the-pyramid points.
there are, as it’ll turn out, 168 of ’em that’ll work."

— Comment at a weblog on November 27, 2010.

See also Log24 on that date.

The 11/27/2010 comment was on a post dated November 23, 2010.

See also Log24 on that  date.


Monday, January 20, 2020

Dyadic Harmonic Analysis:

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 8:26 PM

The Fourfold Square and Eightfold Cube

Related material:  A Google image search for "field dream" + log24.

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Caballo Blanco

Filed under: General — Tags: , , , — m759 @ 9:02 AM

The key  is the cocktail that begins the proceedings.”

– Brian Harley, Mate in Two Moves


“Just as these lines that merge to form a key
Are as chess squares . . . .” — Katherine Neville, The Eight

“The complete projective group of collineations and dualities of the
[projective] 3-space is shown to be of order [in modern notation] 8! ….
To every transformation of the 3-space there corresponds
a transformation of the [projective] 5-space. In the 5-space, there are
determined 8 sets of 7 points each, ‘heptads’ ….”

— George M. Conwell, “The 3-space PG (3, 2) and Its Group,”
The Annals of Mathematics , Second Series, Vol. 11, No. 2 (Jan., 1910),
pp. 60-76.

“It must be remarked that these 8 heptads are the key  to an elegant proof….”

— Philippe Cara, “RWPRI Geometries for the Alternating Group A8,” in
Finite Geometries: Proceedings of the Fourth Isle of Thorns Conference
(July 16-21, 2000), Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, ed. Aart Blokhuis,
James W. P. Hirschfeld, Dieter Jungnickel, and Joseph A. Thas, pp. 61-97.

Sunday, December 22, 2019

M24 from the Eightfold Cube

Filed under: General — Tags: , — m759 @ 12:01 PM

Exercise:  Use the Guitart 7-cycles below to relate the 56 triples
in an 8-set (such as the eightfold cube) to the 56 triangles in
a well-known Klein-quartic hyperbolic-plane tiling. Then use
the correspondence of the triples with the 56 spreads of PG(3,2)
to construct M24.

Click image below to download a Guitart PowerPoint presentation.

See as well earlier posts also tagged Triangles, Spreads, Mathieu.

Friday, December 20, 2019

Triangles, Spreads, Mathieu…

Filed under: General — Tags: , — m759 @ 1:38 AM


An addendum for the post “Triangles, Spreads, Mathieu” of Oct. 29:

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Miracle Octad Generator Structure

Filed under: General — Tags: , , — m759 @ 11:44 PM

Miracle Octad Generator — Analysis of Structure

(Adapted from Eightfold Geometry, a note of April 28, 2010.
See also the recent post Geometry of 6 and 8.)

Friday, November 22, 2019

Triangles, Spreads, Mathieu …

Filed under: General — Tags: , — m759 @ 4:39 PM

Continued from October 29, 2019.

More illustrations (click to enlarge) —

Thursday, October 31, 2019

56 Triangles

Filed under: General — Tags: , — m759 @ 8:09 AM

The post “Triangles, Spreads, Mathieu” of October 29 has been
updated with an illustration from the Curtis Miracle Octad Generator.

Related material — A search in this journal for “56 Triangles.”

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Triangles, Spreads, Mathieu

Filed under: General — Tags: , — m759 @ 8:04 PM

There are many approaches to constructing the Mathieu
group M24. The exercise below sketches an approach that
may or may not be new.


It is well-known that

 There are 56 triangles in an 8-set.
There are 56 spreads in PG(3,2).
The alternating group An is generated by 3-cycles.
The alternating group Ais isomorphic to GL(4,2).

Use the above facts, along with the correspondence
described below, to construct M24.

Some background —

A Log24 post of May 19, 2013, cites

Peter J. Cameron in a 1976 Cambridge U. Press
book — Parallelisms of Complete Designs .
See the proof of Theorem 3A.13 on pp. 59 and 60.

See also a Google search for “56 triangles” “56 spreads” Mathieu.

Update of October 31, 2019 — A related illustration —

Update of November 2, 2019 —

See also p. 284 of Geometry and Combinatorics:
Selected Works of J. J. Seidel
  (Academic Press, 1991).
That page is from a paper published in 1970.

Update of December 20, 2019 —

Monday, October 21, 2019

Algebra and Space… Illustrated.

Filed under: General — Tags: , — m759 @ 4:26 PM

Related entertainment —


   George Steiner

"Perhaps an insane conceit."




See Quantum Tesseract Theorem .


Perhaps Not.


 See Dirac and Geometry .

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

The Joy of Six

Note that in the pictures below of the 15 two-subsets of a six-set,
the symbols 1 through 6 in Hudson's square array of 1905 occupy the
same positions as the anticommuting Dirac matrices in Arfken's 1985
square array. Similarly occupying these positions are the skew lines
within a generalized quadrangle (a line complex) inside PG(3,2).

Anticommuting Dirac matrices as spreads of projective lines

Related narrative The "Quantum Tesseract Theorem."

Sunday, July 14, 2019

Old Pathways in Science:

Filed under: General — Tags: , — m759 @ 12:37 PM

The Quantum Tesseract Theorem Revisited

From page 274 — 

"The secret  is that the super-mathematician expresses by the anticommutation
of  his operators the property which the geometer conceives as  perpendicularity
of displacements.  That is why on p. 269 we singled out a pentad of anticommuting
operators, foreseeing that they would have an immediate application in describing
the property of perpendicular directions without using the traditional picture of space.
They express the property of perpendicularity without the picture of perpendicularity.

Thus far we have touched only the fringe of the structure of our set of sixteen E-operators.
Only by entering deeply into the theory of electrons could I show the whole structure
coming into evidence."

A related illustration, from posts tagged Dirac and Geometry —

Anticommuting Dirac matrices as spreads of projective lines

Compare and contrast Eddington's use of the word "perpendicular"
with a later use of the word by Saniga and Planat.

Saturday, June 1, 2019

Crystals for Dabblers

Filed under: General — m759 @ 11:47 AM

The title was suggested by the "Crystal Cult" installations
of Oslo artist Josefine Lyche and by a post of May 30 —

Thursday, May 30, 2019


Filed under: General — m759 @ 8:02 PM Edit This

Jeff Nichols, director of Midnight Special  (2016) —

"When asked about the film's similarities to
the 2015 Disney movie Tomorrowland , which
also posits a futuristic world that exists in an
alternative dimension, Nichols sighed.
'I was a little bummed, I guess,' he said of
when he first learned about the project. . . . 
'Our die was cast. Sometimes this kind of 
collective unconscious that we're all dabbling in,
sometimes you're not the first one out of the gate.' "

See also Jung's four-diamond figure and the previous post.

Writers of fiction are, of course, also dabblers in the collective unconscious.
For instance . . .

A 1971 British paperback edition of The Dreaming Jewels,  
a story by Theodore Sturgeon (first version published in 1950):

The above book cover, together with the Death Valley location
Zabriskie Point, suggests . . .

Those less enchanted by the collective unconscious may prefer a
different weblog's remarks on the same date as the above Borax post . . .

Friday, May 10, 2019

I Ching g6

Filed under: General — Tags: , , , — m759 @ 12:25 PM

For fans of Resonance Science

When the men on the chessboard
get up and tell you where to go ….”

Desperately Seeking Resonance

Filed under: General — Tags: , , — m759 @ 10:46 AM


Also from Fall Equinox 2018 — Looney Tune for Physicists

Thursday, May 9, 2019

Blade and Chalice at the Museum

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 9:24 PM

(For other posts on the continuing triumph of entertainment
over truth, see a Log24 search for "Night at the Museum.")

See also yesterday's post When the Men and today's previous post.

Defense Against the Dark Arts

Filed under: General — Tags: , , — m759 @ 7:00 PM

F. Lanier Graham chess set (king-queen arrangement by the Wachowskis)

Wednesday, May 8, 2019

When the Men

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 6:33 PM

In Memoriam . . .

"When the men on the chessboard
get up and tell you where to go …."

"The I Ching encodes the geometry of the fabric of spacetime."

Sure it does.

Sunday, March 10, 2019

Vocabulary for SXSW:

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 1:00 PM

Foursquare, Inscape, Subway 

Foursquare —

Inscape —

Subway —

Art installation, "Crystal Cult" by Josefine Lyche, at an Oslo subway station —

See also today's previous post.


Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 12:08 PM

Related material —

Nietzsche, 'law in becoming' and 'play in necessity'

Nietzsche on Heraclitus— 'play in necessity' and 'law in becoming'— illustrated.

Saturday, December 22, 2018


Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 12:34 PM

The following are some notes on the history of Clifford algebras
and finite geometry suggested by the "Clifford Modules" link in a
Log24 post of March 12, 2005

A more recent appearance of the configuration —

Wednesday, December 12, 2018

An Inscape for Douthat

Some images, and a definition, suggested by my remarks here last night
on Apollo and Ross Douthat's remarks today on "The Return of Paganism" —

Detail of Feb. 20, 1986, note by Steven H. Cullinane on Weyl's 'relativity problem'

Kibler's 2008 'Variations on a theme' illustrated.

In finite geometry and combinatorics,
an inscape  is a 4×4 array of square figures,
each figure picturing a subset of the overall 4×4 array:


Related material — the phrase
"Quantum Tesseract Theorem" and  

A.  An image from the recent
      film "A Wrinkle in Time" — 

B.  A quote from the 1962 book —

"There's something phoney
in the whole setup, Meg thought.
There is definitely something rotten
in the state of Camazotz."

Thursday, December 6, 2018

The Mathieu Cube of Iain Aitchison

This journal ten years ago today —

Surprise Package

Santa and a cube
From a talk by a Melbourne mathematician on March 9, 2018 —

The Mathieu group cube of Iain Aitchison (2018, Hiroshima)

The source — Talk II below —

Search Results

pdf of talk I  (March 8, 2018)


Iain Aitchison. Hiroshima  University March 2018 … Immediate: Talk given last year at Hiroshima  (originally Caltech 2010).

pdf of talk II  (March 9, 2018)  (with model for M24)


Iain Aitchison. Hiroshima  University March 2018. (IRA: Hiroshima  03-2018). Highly symmetric objects II.



Iain AITCHISON  Title: Construction of highly symmetric Riemann surfaces , related manifolds, and some exceptional objects, I, II Abstract: Since antiquity, some …

Related material — 

The 56 triangles of  the eightfold cube . . .

The Eightfold Cube: The Beauty of Klein's Simple Group

   Image from Christmas Day 2005.

Sunday, November 18, 2018

Space Music

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 9:27 AM

'The Eddington Song,' based on 'The Philosophy of Physical Science,' p. 141 (1939)

Update of Nov. 19 —

"Design is how it works." — Steve Jobs

See also www.cullinane.design.

Sunday, October 21, 2018

For Connoisseurs of Bad Art

Filed under: General — Tags: , — m759 @ 7:00 PM

Yesterday afternoon's post "Study in Blue and Pink" featured 
an image related to the "Blade and Chalice" of Dan Brown 

Requiem for a comics character known as "The Blue Blade" —


"We all float down here."

About the corresponding "Pink Chalice," the less said the better.

Saturday, October 20, 2018

Study in Blue and Pink

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 3:00 PM

Related Log24 posts — See Blade + Chalice.

Tuesday, September 25, 2018


Filed under: General — Tags: , , — m759 @ 10:10 AM

See some posts related to three names
associated with Trinity College, Cambridge —

Atiyah + Shaw + Eddington .

Saturday, September 1, 2018

Ron Shaw — D. 21 June 2016

The date of Ron Shaw's 2016 death appears to be June 21:


All other Internet sources I have seen omit the June 21 date.

This  journal on that date —


Sunday, July 1, 2018

Deutsche Ordnung

The title is from a phrase spoken, notably, by Yul Brynner
to Christopher Plummer in the 1966 film “Triple Cross.”

Related structures —

Greg Egan’s animated image of the Klein quartic —

For a smaller tetrahedral arrangement, within the Steiner quadruple
system of order 8 modeled by the eightfold cube, see a book chapter
by Michael Huber of Tübingen

Steiner quadruple system in eightfold cube

For further details, see the June 29 post Triangles in the Eightfold Cube.

See also, from an April 2013 philosophical conference:

Abstract for a talk at the City University of New York:

The Experience of Meaning
Jan Zwicky, University of Victoria
09:00-09:40 Friday, April 5, 2013

Once the question of truth is settled, and often prior to it, what we value in a mathematical proof or conjecture is what we value in a work of lyric art: potency of meaning. An absence of clutter is a feature of such artifacts: they possess a resonant clarity that allows their meaning to break on our inner eye like light. But this absence of clutter is not tantamount to ‘being simple’: consider Eliot’s Four Quartets  or Mozart’s late symphonies. Some truths are complex, and they are simplified  at the cost of distortion, at the cost of ceasing to be  truths. Nonetheless, it’s often possible to express a complex truth in a way that precipitates a powerful experience of meaning. It is that experience we seek — not simplicity per se , but the flash of insight, the sense we’ve seen into the heart of things. I’ll first try to say something about what is involved in such recognitions; and then something about why an absence of clutter matters to them.

For the talk itself, see a YouTube video.

The conference talks also appear in a book.

The book begins with an epigraph by Hilbert

Friday, June 29, 2018

Triangles in the Eightfold Cube

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 9:10 PM

From a post of July 25, 2008, “56 Triangles,” on the Klein quartic
and the eightfold cube

Baez’s discussion says that the Klein quartic’s 56 triangles
can be partitioned into 7 eight-triangle Egan ‘cubes’ that
correspond to the 7 points of the Fano plane in such a way
that automorphisms of the Klein quartic correspond to
automorphisms of the Fano plane. Show that the
56 triangles within the eightfold cube can also be partitioned
into 7 eight-triangle sets that correspond to the 7 points of the
Fano plane in such a way that (affine) transformations of the
eightfold cube induce (projective) automorphisms of the Fano plane.”

Related material from 1975 —

More recently

Tuesday, May 8, 2018


Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 1:29 PM

The glitter-ball-like image discussed in the previous post
is of an artwork by Olafur Eliasson.

See the kaleidoscopic  section of his website.

From that section —

Eliasson, 'When Love Is Not Enough' wall, 2007

Related art in keeping with the theme of last night's Met Gala —

See also my 2005 webpage Kaleidoscope Puzzle.

Friday, March 23, 2018

From the Personal to the Platonic

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 11:01 AM

On the Oslo artist Josefine Lyche

"Josefine has taken me through beautiful stories,
ranging from the personal to the platonic
explaining the extensive use of geometry in her art.
I now know that she bursts into laughter when reading
Dostoyevsky, and that she has a weird connection
with a retired mathematician."

Ann Cathrin Andersen

Personal —

The Rushkoff Logo

— From a 2016 graphic novel by Douglas Rushkoff.

See also Rushkoff and Talisman in this journal.

Platonic —

The Diamond Cube.

Compare and contrast the shifting hexagon logo in the Rushkoff novel above 
with the hexagon-inside-a-cube in my "Diamonds and Whirls" note (1984).

Monday, March 12, 2018

“Quantum Tesseract Theorem?”

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 11:00 AM

Remarks related to a recent film and a not-so-recent film.

For some historical background, see Dirac and Geometry in this journal.

Also (as Thas mentions) after Saniga and Planat —

The Saniga-Planat paper was submitted on December 21, 2006.

Excerpts from this  journal on that date —

A Halmos tombstone and the tale of HAL and the pod bay doors

     "Open the pod bay doors, HAL."

Saturday, February 17, 2018

The Binary Revolution

Michael Atiyah on the late Ron Shaw

Phrases by Atiyah related to the importance in mathematics
of the two-element Galois field GF(2) —

  • “The digital revolution based on the 2 symbols (0,1)”
  • “The algebra of George Boole”
  • “Binary codes”
  • “Dirac’s spinors, with their up/down dichotomy”

These phrases are from the year-end review of Trinity College,
Cambridge, Trinity Annual Record 2017 .

I prefer other, purely geometric, reasons for the importance of GF(2) —

  • The 2×2 square
  • The 2x2x2 cube
  • The 4×4 square
  • The 4x4x4 cube

See Finite Geometry of the Square and Cube.

See also today’s earlier post God’s Dice and Atiyah on the theology of
(Boolean) algebra vs. (Galois) geometry:

God’s Dice

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 10:45 AM

On a Trinity classmate of Ian Macdonald (see previous post)—

Atiyah's eulogy of Shaw in Trinity Annual Record 2017 
is on pages 137 through 146.  The conclusion —


Tuesday, October 10, 2017

Another 35-Year Wait

Filed under: G-Notes,General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 9:00 PM

The title refers to today's earlier post "The 35-Year Wait."

A check of my activities 35 years ago this fall, in the autumn
of 1982, yields a formula I prefer to the nonsensical, but famous,
"canonical formula" of Claude Lévi-Strauss.

The Lévi-Strauss formula

My "inscape" formula, from a note of Sept. 22, 1982 —

S = f ( f ( X ) ) .

Some mathematics from last year related to the 1982 formula —

Koen Thas, 'Unextendible Mututally Unbiased Bases' (2016)

See also Inscape in this  journal and posts tagged Dirac and Geometry.

Tuesday, September 12, 2017


Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 12:18 PM

"Truth and clarity remained his paramount goals…"

— Benedict Nightingale in today's online New York TImes  on an
English theatre director, founder of the Royal Shakespeare Company,
who reportedly died yesterday at 86.

See also Paramount in this  journal.

Monday, September 11, 2017

New Depth

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 9:48 PM

A sentence from the New York Times Wire  discussed in the previous post

NYT Wire on Len Wein: 'Through characters like Wolverine and Swamp Thing, he helped bring a new depth to his art form.'

"Through characters like Wolverine and Swamp Thing,
he helped bring a new depth to his art form."

For Wolverine and Swamp Thing in posts related to a different
art form — geometry — see …

Monday, June 26, 2017

Upgrading to Six

This post was suggested by the previous post — Four Dots —
and by the phrase "smallest perfect" in this journal.

Related material (click to enlarge) —

Detail —

From the work of Eddington cited in 1974 by von Franz —

See also Dirac and Geometry and Kummer in this journal.

Updates from the morning of June 27 —

Ron Shaw on Eddington's triads "associated in conjugate pairs" —

For more about hyperbolic  and isotropic  lines in PG(3,2),
see posts tagged Diamond Theorem Correlation.

For Shaw, in memoriam — See Contrapuntal Interweaving and The Fugue.

Thursday, April 20, 2017

Stone Logic

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 9:48 PM

See also “Romancing the Omega” —

Image- Josefine Lyche work (with 1986 figures by Cullinane) in a 2009 exhibition in Oslo

Related mathematics — Guitart in this journal —

From 'Moving Logic, from Boole to Galois,' by René Guitart, 2005

See also Weyl + Palermo in this journal —


Sunday, March 26, 2017

Seagram Studies

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 9:00 PM

From a search in this journal for Seagram + Tradition

Related art:  Saturday afternoon's Twin Pillars of Symmetry.

Saturday, March 25, 2017

Twin Pillars of Symmetry

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 1:00 PM

The phrase "twin pillars" in a New York Times  Fashion & Style
article today suggests a look at another pair of pillars —

This pair, from the realm of memory, history, and geometry disparaged
by the late painter Mark Rothko, might be viewed by Rothko
as  "parodies of ideas (which are ghosts)." (See the previous post.)

For a relationship between a 3-dimensional simplex and the {4, 3, 3},
see my note from May 21, 2014, on the tetrahedron and the tesseract.

Like Decorations in a Cartoon Graveyard

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 4:00 AM

Continued from April 11, 2016, and from

A tribute to Rothko suggested by the previous post

For the idea  of Rothko's obstacles, see Hexagram 39 in this journal.

Friday, February 3, 2017

Raiders of the Lost Chalice

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 9:30 AM

Personally, I prefer
the religious symbolism
of Hudson Hawk .

Sunday, December 25, 2016

Credit Where Due

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 12:00 PM

See also Robert M. Pirsig in this journal on Dec. 26, 2012.

Saturday, December 24, 2016

Early X Piece

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 11:00 AM

In memory of an American artist whose work resembles that of
the Soviet constructivist Karl Ioganson (c. 1890-1929).

The American artist reportedly died on Thursday, Dec. 22, 2016.

"In fact, the (re-)discovery of this novel structural principle was made in 1948-49 by a young American artist whom Koleichuk also mentions, Kenneth Snelson. In the summer of 1948, Snelson had gone to study with Joseph Albers who was then teaching at Black Mountain College. . . . One of the first works he made upon his return home was Early X Piece  which he dates to December 1948 . . . . "

— "In the Laboratory of Constructivism:
      Karl Ioganson's Cold Structures,"
      by Maria GoughOCTOBER  Magazine, MIT,
      Issue 84, Spring 1998, pp. 91-117

The word "constructivism" also refers to a philosophy of mathematics.
See a Log24 post, "Constructivist Witness,"  of 1 AM ET on the above
date of death.

Thursday, December 22, 2016

The Laugh-Hospital

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 12:00 PM

Constructivism in mathematics and the laughing academy

See also, from the above publication date, Hudson's Inscape.
The inscape is illustrated in posts now tagged Laughing Academy.

Constructivist Witness

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 1:00 AM

The title refers to a philosophy of mathematics.

For those who prefer metaphor Folk Etymology.

See also Stages of Math at Princeton's  
Institute for Advanced Study in March 2013 —

— and in this journal starting in August 2014.

Monday, December 19, 2016


Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 10:25 PM

See also all posts now tagged Memory, History, Geometry.

Tetrahedral Cayley-Salmon Model

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 9:38 AM

The figure below is one approach to the exercise
posted here on December 10, 2016.

Tetrahedral model (minus six lines) of the large Desargues configuration

Some background from earlier posts —

IMAGE- Geometry of the Six-Set, Steven H. Cullinane, April 23, 2013

Click the image below to enlarge it.

Polster's tetrahedral model of the small Desargues configuration

Sunday, December 18, 2016

Two Models of the Small Desargues Configuration

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 12:00 PM

Click image to enlarge.

Polster's tetrahedral model of the small Desargues configuration

See also the large  Desargues configuration in this journal.

Saturday, December 17, 2016

Tetrahedral Death Star

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 10:00 PM

Continuing the "Memory, History, Geometry" theme
from yesterday

See Tetrahedral,  Oblivion,  and Tetrahedral Oblivion.

IMAGE- From 'Oblivion' (2013), the Mother Ship

"Welcome home, Jack."

Friday, December 16, 2016

Read Something That Means Something

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 5:29 PM

Rothko’s Swamps

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 2:45 AM

"… you don’t write off an aging loved one
just because he or she becomes cranky."

— Peter Schjeldahl on Rothko in The New Yorker ,
issue dated December 19 & 26, 2016, page 27

He was cranky in his forties too —

See Rothko + Swamp in this journal.

Related attitude —

From Subway Art for Times Square Church , Nov. 7

Tuesday, December 13, 2016

The Thirteenth Novel

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 4:00 PM

John Updike on Don DeLillo's thirteenth novel, Cosmopolis

" DeLillo’s post-Christian search for 'an order at some deep level'
has brought him to global computerization:
'the zero-oneness of the world, the digital imperative . . . . ' "

The New Yorker , issue dated March 31, 2003

On that date ….

Related remark —

" There is a pleasantly discursive treatment 
of Pontius Pilate’s unanswered question
‘What is truth?’ "

— Coxeter, 1987, introduction to Trudeau’s
     The Non-Euclidean Revolution

Saturday, December 10, 2016

Folk Etymology

Images from Burkard Polster's Geometrical Picture Book

See as well in this journal the large  Desargues configuration, with
15 points and 20 lines instead of 10 points and 10 lines as above.

Exercise:  Can the large Desargues configuration be formed
by adding 5 points and 10 lines to the above Polster model
of the small configuration in such a way as to preserve
the small-configuration model's striking symmetry?  
(Note: The related figure below from May 21, 2014, is not
necessarily very helpful. Try the Wolfram Demonstrations
, which requires a free player download.)

Labeling the Tetrahedral Model (Click to enlarge) —

Related folk etymology (see point a  above) —

Related literature —

The concept  of "fire in the center" at The New Yorker , 
issue dated December 12, 2016, on pages 38-39 in the
poem by Marsha de la O titled "A Natural History of Light."

Cézanne's Greetings.

Wednesday, December 7, 2016

Spreads and Conwell’s Heptads

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 7:11 PM

For a concise historical summary of the interplay between
the geometry of an 8-set and that of a 16-set that is
involved in the the Miracle Octad Generator approach
to the large Mathieu group M24, see Section 2 of 

Alan R. Prince
A near projective plane of order 6 (pp. 97-105)
Innovations in Incidence Geometry
Volume 13 (Spring/Fall 2013).

This interplay, notably discussed by Conwell and
by Edge, involves spreads and Conwell’s heptads .

Update, morning of the following day (7:07 ET) — related material:

See also “56 spreads” in this  journal.

Thursday, September 15, 2016

The Smallest Perfect Number/Universe

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 6:29 AM

The smallest perfect number,* six, meets
"the smallest perfect universe,"** PG(3,2).

IMAGE- Geometry of the Six-Set, Steven H. Cullinane, April 23, 2013

  * For the definition of "perfect number," see any introductory
    number-theory text that deals with the history of the subject.
** The phrase "smallest perfect universe" as a name for PG(3,2),
     the projective 3-space over the 2-element Galois field GF(2),
     was coined by math writer Burkard Polster. Cullinane's square
     model of PG(3,2) differs from the earlier tetrahedral model
     discussed by Polster.

Tuesday, September 13, 2016

Parametrizing the 4×4 Array

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , , — m759 @ 10:00 PM

The previous post discussed the parametrization of 
the 4×4 array as a vector 4-space over the 2-element 
Galois field GF(2).

The 4×4 array may also be parametrized by the symbol
0  along with the fifteen 2-subsets of a 6-set, as in Hudson's
1905 classic Kummer's Quartic Surface

Hudson in 1905:

These two ways of parametrizing the 4×4 array — as a finite space
and as an array of 2-element sets —  were related to one another
by Cullinane in 1986 in describing, in connection with the Curtis
"Miracle Octad Generator,"  what turned out to be 15 of Hudson's
1905 "Göpel tetrads":

A recap by Cullinane in 2013:

IMAGE- Geometry of the Six-Set, Steven H. Cullinane, April 23, 2013

Click images for further details.

Monday, September 12, 2016

The Kummer Lattice

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , , — m759 @ 2:00 PM

The previous post quoted Tom Wolfe on Chomsky's use of
the word "array." 

An example of particular interest is the 4×4  array
(whether of dots or of unit squares) —


Some context for the 4×4 array —

The following definition indicates that the 4×4 array, when
suitably coordinatized, underlies the Kummer lattice .

Further background on the Kummer lattice:

Alice Garbagnati and Alessandra Sarti, 
"Kummer Surfaces and K3 surfaces
with $(Z/2Z)^4$ symplectic action." 
To appear in Rocky Mountain J. Math.

The above article is written from the viewpoint of traditional
algebraic geometry. For a less traditional view of the underlying
affine 4-space from finite  geometry, see the website
Finite Geometry of the Square and Cube.

Some further context

"To our knowledge, the relation of the Golay code
to the Kummer lattice is a new observation."

— Anne Taormina and Katrin Wendland,
"The overarching finite symmetry group of
Kummer surfaces in the Mathieu group M24 

As noted earlier, Taormina and Wendland seem not to be aware of
R. W. H. T. Hudson's use of the (uncoordinatized*) 4×4 array in his
1905 book Kummer's Quartic Surface.  The array was coordinatized,
i.e. given a "vector space structure," by Cullinane eight years prior to
the cited remarks of Curtis.

* Update of Sept. 14: "Uncoordinatized," but parametrized  by 0 and
the 15 two-subsets of a six-set. See the post of Sept. 13.

Tuesday, July 12, 2016

Group Elements and Skew Lines

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 12:00 AM

The following passage by Igor Dolgachev (Good Friday, 2003
seems somewhat relevant (via its connection to Kummer's 166 )
to previous remarks here on Dirac matrices and geometry

Note related remarks from E. M. Bruins in 1959 —

First page of 'Configurations in Quantum Mechanics,' by E.M. Bruins, 1959

Friday, June 3, 2016

Bruins and van Dam

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 8:00 AM

A review of some recent posts on Dirac and geometry,
each of which mentions the late physicist Hendrik van Dam:

The first of these posts mentions the work of E. M. Bruins.
Some earlier posts that cite Bruins:

Wednesday, May 25, 2016


Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 12:00 PM

"Studies of spin-½ theories in the framework of projective geometry
have been undertaken before." — Y. Jack Ng  and H. van Dam
February 20, 2009

For one such framework,* see posts from that same date 
four years earlier — February 20, 2005.

* A 4×4 array. See the 19771978, and 1986 versions by 
Steven H. Cullinane,   the 1987 version by R. T. Curtis, and
the 1988 Conway-Sloane version illustrated below —

Cullinane, 1977

IMAGE- Hypercube and 4x4 matrix from the 1976 'Diamond Theory' preprint, as excerpted in 'Computer Graphics and Art'

Cullinane, 1978

Cullinane, 1986

Curtis, 1987

Update of 10:42 PM ET on Sunday, June 19, 2016 —

The above images are precursors to

Conway and Sloane, 1988

Update of 10 AM ET Sept. 16, 2016 — The excerpt from the
1977 "Diamond Theory" article was added above.

Kummer and Dirac

From "Projective Geometry and PT-Symmetric Dirac Hamiltonian,"
Y. Jack Ng  and H. van Dam, 
Physics Letters B , Volume 673, Issue 3,
23 March 2009, Pages 237–239

(http://arxiv.org/abs/0901.2579v2, last revised Feb. 20, 2009)

" Studies of spin-½ theories in the framework of projective geometry
have been undertaken before. See, e.g., Ref. [4]. 1 "

1 These papers are rather mathematical and technical.
The authors of the first two papers discuss the Dirac equation
in terms of the Plucker-Klein correspondence between lines of
a three-dimensional projective space and points of a quadric
in a five-dimensional projective space. The last paper shows
that the Dirac equation bears a certain relation to Kummer’s
surface, viz., the structure of the Dirac ring of matrices is 
related to that of Kummer’s 166 configuration . . . ."


O. Veblen
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA , 19 (1933), p. 503
Full Text via CrossRef

E.M. Bruins
Proc. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. , 52 (1949), p. 1135

F.C. Taylor Jr., Master thesis, University of North Carolina
at Chapel Hill (1968), unpublished

A remark of my own on the structure of Kummer’s 166 configuration . . . .

See that structure in this  journal, for instance —

See as well yesterday morning's post.

Tuesday, May 24, 2016

Rosenhain and Göpel Revisited

The authors Taormina and Wendland in the previous post
discussed some mathematics they apparently did not know was
related to a classic 1905 book by R. W. H. T. Hudson, Kummer's
Quartic Surface

"This famous book is a prototype for the possibility
of explaining and exploring a many-faceted topic of
research, without focussing on general definitions,
formal techniques, or even fancy machinery. In this
regard, the book still stands as a highly recommendable,
unparalleled introduction to Kummer surfaces, as a
permanent source of inspiration and, last but not least, 
as an everlasting symbol of mathematical culture."

— Werner Kleinert, Mathematical Reviews ,
     as quoted at Amazon.com

Some 4×4 diagrams from that book are highly relevant to the
discussion by Taormina and Wendland of the 4×4 squares within
the 1974 Miracle Octad Generator of R. T. Curtis that were later,
in 1987, described by Curtis as pictures of the vector 4-space over
the two-element Galois field GF(2).

Hudson did not think of his 4×4 diagrams as illustrating a vector space,
but he did use them to picture certain subsets of the 16 cells in each
diagram that he called Rosenhain and Göpel tetrads .

Some related work of my own (click images for related posts)—

Rosenhain tetrads as 20 of the 35 projective lines in PG(3,2)

IMAGE- Desargues's theorem in light of Galois geometry

Göpel tetrads as 15 of the 35 projective lines in PG(3,2)

Anticommuting Dirac matrices as spreads of projective lines

Related terminology describing the Göpel tetrads above

Ron Shaw on symplectic geometry and a linear complex in PG(3,2)

Tuesday, April 26, 2016


Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 8:31 PM

"… I would drop the keystone into my arch …."

— Charles Sanders Peirce, "On Phenomenology"

" 'But which is the stone that supports the bridge?' Kublai Khan asks."

— Italo Calvino, Invisible Cities, as quoted by B. Elan Dresher.

(B. Elan Dresher. Nordlyd  41.2 (2014): 165-181,
special issue on Features edited by Martin Krämer,
Sandra Ronai and Peter Svenonius. University of Tromsø –
The Arctic University of Norway.

Peter Svenonius and Martin Krämer, introduction to the
Nordlyd  double issue on Features —

"Interacting with these questions about the 'geometric' 
relations among features is the algebraic structure
of the features."

For another such interaction, see the previous post.

This  post may be viewed as a commentary on a remark in Wikipedia

"All of these ideas speak to the crux of Plato's Problem…."

See also The Diamond Theorem at Tromsø and Mere Geometry.

Tuesday, March 15, 2016

15 Projective Points Revisited

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 11:59 PM

A March 10, 2016, Facebook post from KUNSTforum.as,
a Norwegian art quarterly —

Article on Josefine Lyche's Vigeland Museum exhibit, which included Cullinane's eightfold cube

Click image above for a view of pages 50-51 of a new KUNSTforum 
article showing two photos relevant to my own work — those labeled
"after S. H. Cullinane."

(The phrase "den pensjonerte Oxford-professoren Stephen H. Cullinane"
on page 51 is almost completely wrong. I have never been a professor,
I was never at Oxford, and my first name is Steven, not Stephen.)

For some background on the 15 projective points at the lower left of
the above March 10 Facebook post, see "The Smallest Projective Space."

Monday, February 8, 2016

A Game with Four Letters

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 2:56 PM

Related material — Posts tagged Dirac and Geometry.

For an example of what Eddington calls "an open mind,"
see the 1958 letters of Nanavira Thera.
(Among the "Early Letters" in Seeking the Path ).

Monday, December 28, 2015

Mirrors, Mirrors, on the Wall

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 8:00 AM

The previous post quoted Holland Cotter's description of
the late Ellsworth Kelly as one who might have admired 
"the anonymous role of the Romanesque church artist." 

Work of a less anonymous sort was illustrated today by both
The New York Times  and The Washington Post

'Artist Who Shaped Geometries on a Bold Scale' - NY Times

'Ellsworth Kelly, the master of the deceptively simple' - Washington Post

The Post 's remarks are of particular interest:

Philip Kennicott in The Washington Post , Dec. 28, 2015,
on a work by the late Ellsworth Kelly —

“Sculpture for a Large Wall” consisted of 104 anodized aluminum panels, colored red, blue, yellow and black, and laid out on four long rows measuring 65 feet. Each panel seemed different from the next, subtle variations on the parallelogram, and yet together they also suggested a kind of language, or code, as if their shapes, colors and repeating patterns spelled out a basic computer language, or proto-digital message.

The space in between the panels, and the shadows they cast on the wall, were also part of the effect, creating a contrast between the material substance of the art, and the cascading visual and mental ideas it conveyed. The piece was playful, and serious; present and absent; material and imaginary; visually bold and intellectually diaphanous.

Often, with Kelly, you felt as if he offered up some ideal slice of the world, decontextualized almost to the point of absurdity. A single arc sliced out of a circle; a single perfect rectangle; one bold juxtaposition of color or shape. But when he allowed his work to encompass more complexity, to indulge a rhetoric of repetition, rhythmic contrasts, and multiple self-replicating ideas, it began to feel like language, or narrative. And this was always his best mode.

Compare and contrast a 2010 work by Josefine Lyche

IMAGE- The 2x2 case of the diamond theorem as illustrated by Josefine Lyche, Oct. 2010

Lyche's mirrors-on-the-wall installation is titled
"The 2×2 Case (Diamond Theorem)."

It is based on a smaller illustration of my own.

These  variations also, as Kennicott said of Kelly's,
"suggested a kind of language, or code."

This may well be the source of their appeal for Lyche.
For me, however, such suggestiveness is irrelevant to the
significance of the variations in a larger purely geometric

This context is of course quite inaccessible to most art
critics. Steve Martin, however, has a phrase that applies
to both Kelly's and Lyche's installations: "wall power."
See a post of Dec. 15, 2010.

Sunday, December 27, 2015


Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 5:05 AM

A death on Xmas Day

Artist Josefine Lyche

IMAGE- Josefine Lyche bowling, from her Facebook page


Monday, November 7, 2011

The X Box

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 10:30 AM 

"Design is how it works." — Steve Jobs, quoted in
The New York Times Magazine  on St. Andrew's Day, 2003.

The X-Box Sum .

For some background on this enigmatic equation,
see Geometry of the I Ching.

Saturday, November 21, 2015

The Zero System

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 12:00 AM

For the title phrase, see Encyclopedia of Mathematics .
The zero system  illustrated in the previous post*
should not be confused with the cinematic Zero Theorem .

* More precisely, in the part showing the 15 lines fixed under
   a zero-system polarity in PG(3,2).  For the zero system 
   itself, see diamond-theorem correlation.

Friday, November 20, 2015

Anticommuting Dirac Matrices as Skew Lines

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 11:45 PM

(Continued from November 13)

The work of Ron Shaw in this area, ca. 1994-1995, does not
display explicitly the correspondence between anticommutativity
in the set of Dirac matrices and skewness in a line complex of
PG(3,2), the projective 3-space over the 2-element Galois field.

Here is an explicit picture —

Anticommuting Dirac matrices as spreads of projective lines


Arfken, George B., Mathematical Methods for Physicists , Third Edition,
Academic Press, 1985, pages 213-214

Cullinane, Steven H., Notes on Groups and Geometry, 1978-1986

Shaw, Ron, "Finite Geometry, Dirac Groups, and the Table of
Real Clifford Algebras," undated article at ResearchGate.net

Update of November 23:

See my post of Nov. 23 on publications by E. M. Bruins
in 1949 and 1959 on Dirac matrices and line geometry,
and on another author who gives some historical background
going back to Eddington.

Some more-recent related material from the Slovak school of
finite geometry and quantum theory —

Saniga, 'Finite Projective Spaces, Geometric Spreads of Lines and Multi-Qubits,' excerpt

The matrices underlying the Saniga paper are those of Pauli, not
those of Dirac, but these two sorts of matrices are closely related.

Thursday, November 19, 2015

Highlights of the Dirac-Mathieu Connection

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 12:00 PM

For the connection of the title, see the post of Friday, November 13th, 2015.

For the essentials of this connection, see the following two documents —

Friday, November 13, 2015

A Connection between the 16 Dirac Matrices and the Large Mathieu Group

Note that the six anticommuting sets of Dirac matrices listed by Arfken
correspond exactly to the six spreads in the above complex of 15 projective
lines of PG(3,2) fixed under a symplectic polarity (the diamond theorem
). As I noted in 1986, this correlation underlies the Miracle
Octad Generator of R. T. Curtis, hence also the large Mathieu group.


Arfken, George B., Mathematical Methods for Physicists , Third Edition,
Academic Press, 1985, pages 213-214

Cullinane, Steven H., Notes on Groups and Geometry, 1978-1986

Related material:

The 6-set in my 1986 note above also appears in a 1996 paper on
the sixteen Dirac matrices by David M. Goodmanson —

Background reading:

Ron Shaw on finite geometry, Clifford algebras, and Dirac groups 
(undated compilation of publications from roughly 1994-1995)—

Thursday, March 26, 2015

The Möbius Hypercube

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 12:31 AM

The incidences of points and planes in the
Möbius 8 configuration (8 points and 8 planes,
with 4 points on each plane and 4 planes on each point),
were described by Coxeter in a 1950 paper.* 
A table from Monday's post summarizes Coxeter's
remarks, which described the incidences in
spatial terms, with the points and planes as the vertices
and face-planes of two mutually inscribed tetrahedra —

Monday's post, "Gallucci's Möbius Configuration,"
may not be completely intelligible unless one notices
that Coxeter has drawn some of the intersections in his 
Fig. 24, a schematic representation of the point-plane
incidences, as dotless, and some as hollow dots.  The figure,
"Gallucci's version of Möbius's 84," is shown below.
The hollow dots, representing the 8 points  (as opposed
to the 8 planes ) of the configuration, are highlighted in blue.

Here a plane  (represented by a dotless intersection) contains
the four points  that are represented in the square array as lying
in the same row or same column as the plane. 

The above Möbius incidences appear also much earlier in
Coxeter's paper, in figures 6 and 5, where they are shown
as describing the structure of a hypercube. 

In figures 6 and 5, the dotless intersections representing
planes have been replaced by solid dots. The hollow dots
have again been highlighted in blue.

Figures 6 and 5 demonstrate the fact that adjacency in the set of
16 vertices of a hypercube is isomorphic to adjacency in the set
of 16 subsquares of a square 4×4 array, provided that opposite
sides of the array are identified, as in Fig. 6. The digits in 
Coxeter's labels above may be viewed as naming the positions 
of the 1's in (0,1) vectors (x4, x3, x2, x1) over the two-element
Galois field.  In that context, the 4×4 array may be called, instead
of a Möbius hypercube , a Galois tesseract .

*  "Self-Dual Configurations and Regular Graphs," 
    Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society,
    Vol. 56 (1950), pp. 413-455

The subscripts' usual 1-2-3-4 order is reversed as a reminder
    that such a vector may be viewed as labeling a binary number 
    from 0  through 15, or alternately as labeling a polynomial in
    the 16-element Galois field GF(24).  See the Log24 post
     Vector Addition in a Finite Field (Jan. 5, 2013).

Monday, March 23, 2015

Gallucci’s Möbius Configuration

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 12:05 PM

From H. S. M. Coxeter's 1950 paper
"Self-Dual Configurations and Regular Graphs," 
a 4×4 array and a more perspicuous rearrangement—

(Click image to enlarge.) 

The above rearrangement brings Coxeter's remarks into accord
with the webpage The Galois Tesseract.

Update of Thursday, March 26, 2015 —

For an explanation of Coxeter's Fig. 24, see Thursday's later
post titled "The Möbius Hypercube."

Wednesday, December 3, 2014

Pyramid Dance

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 10:00 AM

Oslo artist Josefine Lyche has a new Instagram post,
this time on pyramids (the monumental kind).

My response —

Wikipedia's definition of a tetrahedron as a
"triangle-based pyramid"

and remarks from a Log24 post of August 14, 2013 :

Norway dance (as interpreted by an American)

IMAGE- 'The geometry of the dance' is that of a tetrahedron, according to Peter Pesic

I prefer a different, Norwegian, interpretation of "the dance of four."

Related material:
The clash between square and tetrahedral versions of PG(3,2).

See also some of Burkard Polster's triangle-based pyramids
and a 1983 triangle-based pyramid in a paper that Polster cites —

(Click image below to enlarge.)

Some other illustrations that are particularly relevant
for Lyche, an enthusiast of magic :

From On Art and Magic (May 5, 2011) —





The Fano plane block design



The Deathly Hallows  symbol—
Two blocks short of  a design.


(Updated at about 7 PM ET on Dec. 3.)

Wednesday, October 1, 2014

Mathematics for Tromsø

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 9:45 AM

Loren Olson, Harvard ’64, a professor of mathematics
at Norway’s Tromsø University,* died June 22, 2014.

In his memory, a search in this journal for Lie Group.

That search yields a post titled Lie Groups for Holy Week (March 30, 2010).

A quotation related to that post:

* The city of Tromsø hosted some art related to group theory in 2010.
Neither that art nor my own related remarks on group theory are very
relevant to physics (yet).

Wednesday, August 13, 2014

Symplectic Structure continued

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , , — m759 @ 12:00 PM

Some background for the part of the 2002 paper by Dolgachev and Keum
quoted here on January 17, 2014 —

Related material in this journal (click image for posts) —

Sunday, August 3, 2014

The Omega Matrix

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 10:31 PM

Shown below is the matrix Omega from notes of Richard Evan Schwartz.
See also earlier versions (1976-1979) by Steven H. Cullinane.

IMAGE- The matrix Omega from notes of Richard Evan Schwartz. See also earlier versions (1977-1979) by Steven H. Cullinane.

Backstory:  The Schwartz Notes (June 1, 2011), and Schwartz on
the American Mathematical Society's current home page:

(Click to enlarge.)

Thursday, July 31, 2014

Zero System

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 6:11 PM

The title phrase (not to be confused with the film 'The Zero Theorem')
means, according to the Encyclopedia of Mathematics,
a null system , and

"A null system is also called null polarity,
a symplectic polarity or a symplectic correlation….
it is a polarity such that every point lies in its own
polar hyperplane."

See Reinhold Baer, "Null Systems in Projective Space,"
Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, Vol. 51
(1945), pp. 903-906.

An example in PG(3,2), the projective 3-space over the
two-element Galois field GF(2):

IMAGE- The natural symplectic polarity in PG(3,2), illustrating a symplectic structure

See also the 10 AM ET post of Sunday, June 8, 2014, on this topic.

Tuesday, May 6, 2014


Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 2:29 PM

From The Ninth Element  website:

Cover of a Norwegian author’s forthcoming novel:

For some Norwegian non-fiction, see an Oslo artist’s Instagram page.

Friday, March 21, 2014

Three Constructions of the Miracle Octad Generator

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 12:24 PM

IMAGE- Two constructions, by Turyn/Curtis, and by Conway, of the Miracle Octad Generator

See also a Log24 post on this subject from Dec. 14, 2013,
especially (scroll down) the update of March 9, 2014.

Related material on the Turyn-Curtis construction
from the University of Cambridge —

— Slide by “Dr. Parker” — Apparently Richard A. Parker —
Lecture 4, “Discovering M24,” in slides for lectures 1-8 from lectures
at Cambridge in 2010-2011 on “Sporadic and Related Groups.”
See also the Parker lectures of 2012-2013 on the same topic.

A third construction of Curtis’s 35  4×6  1976 MOG arrays would use
Cullinane’s analysis of the 4×4 subarrays’ affine and projective structure,
and point out the fact that Conwell’s 1910 correspondence of the 35
4+4-partitions of an 8-set with the 35 lines of the projective 3-space
over the 2-element field, PG(3, 2), is essentially the same correspondence
as that constituting Curtis’s 1976 MOG.

See The Diamond Theorem,  Finite RelativityGalois Space,
Generating the Octad Generator, and The Klein Correspondence.

Update of March 22-March 23 —

Adding together as (0,1)-matrices over GF(2) the black parts (black
squares as 1’s, all other squares as 0’s) of the 35  4×6 arrays of the 1976
Curtis MOG would then reveal*  the symmetric role played in octads
by what Curtis called the heavy brick , and so reveal also the action of
S3 on the three Curtis bricks that leaves invariant the set of all 759
octads of the S(5, 8, 24) constructed from the 35  MOG arrays.  For more
details of this “by-hand” construction, see Geometry of the 4×4 Square.
For the mathematical properties of the S(5, 8, 24), it is convenient to
have a separate construction,  not  by hand (such as Turyn’s), of the
extended binary Golay code. See the Brouwer preprint quoted above.

* “Then a miracle occurs,” as in the classic 1977 Sidney Harris cartoon.

Illustration of array addition from March 23 —

IMAGE- Discovery of the S_3 action on bricks in the Conwell-Cullinane 'by-hand' approach to octad-building

Thursday, March 20, 2014

Classical Galois

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 12:26 PM

IMAGE- The large Desargues configuration and Desargues's theorem in light of Galois geometry

Click image for more details.

To enlarge image, click here.

Saturday, March 1, 2014


Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 10:30 PM

IMAGE- Josefine Lyche changes her Facebook cover photo to a form of the Tetragrammaton.

From New World Encyclopedia —

See also Tetragrammaton in this journal.

For further context, see Solomon's Cube and Oct. 16, 2013.

Thursday, February 6, 2014

The Representation of Minus One

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 6:24 AM

For the late mathematics educator Zoltan Dienes.

“There comes a time when the learner has identified
the abstract content of a number of different games
and is practically crying out for some sort of picture
by means of which to represent that which has been
gleaned as the common core of the various activities.”

— Article by “Melanie” at Zoltan Dienes’s website

Dienes reportedly died at 97 on Jan. 11, 2014.

From this journal on that date —


A star figure and the Galois quaternion.

The square root of the former is the latter.

Update of 5:01 PM ET Feb. 6, 2014 —

An illustration by Dienes related to the diamond theorem —

See also the above 15 images in


and versions of the 4×4 coordinatization in  The 4×4 Relativity Problem
(Jan. 17, 2014).

Tuesday, February 4, 2014

Mystery Box

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 1:13 PM

In honor of the tenth anniversary of Facebook

Viewed in the Chrome browser, a Facebook post from
January 29, 2014, displays an artist's Mystery Box*

IMAGE- Josefine Lyche, Facebook post with the blank-box symbol for an unidentified character

In the Internet Explorer browser, the mystery is solved:

Further details —


Related material — Lyche + Geometry in this journal.

See also the cat and triangle pictured by David Justice yesterday


* A phrase of filmmaker J.J. Abrams. Click the link 
   for further details. See also a mystery box 
   in The New York Times  on June 2, 2011.

Friday, January 17, 2014

The 4×4 Relativity Problem

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , , — m759 @ 11:00 PM

The sixteen-dot square array in yesterday’s noon post suggests
the following remarks.

“This is the relativity problem:  to fix objectively a class of
equivalent coordinatizations and to ascertain the group of
transformations S mediating between them.”

— Hermann Weyl, The Classical Groups ,
Princeton University Press, 1946, p. 16

The Galois tesseract  appeared in an early form in the journal
Computer Graphics and Art , Vol. 2, No. 1, February 1977—

IMAGE- Hypercube and 4x4 matrix from the 1976 'Diamond Theory' preprint, as excerpted in 'Computer Graphics and Art'

The 1977 matrix Q is echoed in the following from 2002—

IMAGE- Dolgachev and Keum, coordinatization of the 4x4 array in 'Birational Automorphisms of Quartic Hessian Surfaces,' AMS Transactions, 2002

A different representation of Cullinane’s 1977 square model of the
16-point affine geometry over the two-element Galois field GF(2)
is supplied by Conway and Sloane in Sphere Packings, Lattices and Groups   
(first published in 1988) :

IMAGE- The Galois tesseract as a four-dimensional vector space, from a diagram by Conway and Sloane in 'Sphere Packings, Lattices, and Groups'

Here a, b, c, d   are basis vectors in the vector 4-space over GF(2).
(For a 1979 version of this vector space, see AMS Abstract 79T-A37.)

See also a 2011 publication of the Mathematical Association of America —

From 'Beautiful Mathematics,' by Martin Erickson, an excerpt on the Cullinane diamond theorem (with source not mentioned)

Friday, December 20, 2013

For Emil Artin

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 12:00 PM

(On His Dies Natalis )

An Exceptional Isomorphism Between Geometric and
Combinatorial Steiner Triple Systems Underlies 
the Octads of the M24 Steiner System S(5, 8, 24).

This is asserted in an excerpt from… 

"The smallest non-rank 3 strongly regular graphs
​which satisfy the 4-vertex condition"
by Mikhail Klin, Mariusz Meszka, Sven Reichard, and Alex Rosa,

(Click for clearer image)

Note that Theorem 46 of Klin et al.  describes the role
of the Galois tesseract  in the Miracle Octad Generator
of R. T. Curtis (original 1976 version). The tesseract
(a 4×4 array) supplies the geometric  part of the above
exceptional geometric-combinatorial isomorphism.

Wednesday, October 16, 2013

Theme and Variations

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 6:16 PM


IMAGE- The Diamond Theorem

Josefine Lyche’s large wall version of the twenty-four 2×2 variations
above was apparently offered for sale today in Norway —

Click image for more details and click here for a translation.

Monday, October 14, 2013

Up and Down

Filed under: General — Tags: , — m759 @ 9:29 AM

Heraclitus, Fragment 60 (Diels number):

The way up and the way down is one and the same.

ὁδὸς ἄνω κάτω μία καὶ ὡυτή

hodòs áno káto mía kaì houté

— http://www.heraclitusfragments.com/B60/index.html

IMAGE- Fetzer on ambiguity in Mann's 'Doctor Faustus'

See also Blade and Chalice and, for a less Faustian
approach, Universe of Discourse.

IMAGE- Logic related to 'the arsenal of algebraic analysis tools for fields'

Further context:  Not Theology.

Tuesday, October 1, 2013

Frame Tale

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 12:24 PM

From an academic's website:

IMAGE- Remarks by Paul Hertz, alias Ignotus the Mage

For Josefine Lyche and Ignotus the Mage,
as well as Rose the Hat and other Zingari shoolerim —

Sabbatha hanti, lodsam hanti, cahanna risone hanti :
words that had been old when the True Knot moved
across Europe in wagons, selling peat turves and trinkets.
They had probably been old when Babylon was young.
The girl was powerful, but the True was all-powerful,
and Rose anticipated no real problem.

— King, Stephen (2013-09-24).
     Doctor Sleep: A Novel
     (pp. 278-279). Scribner. Kindle Edition. 

From a post of November 10, 2008:

Twenty-four Variations on a Theme of Plato

Twenty-four Variations on a Theme of Plato,
a version by Barry Sharples based on the earlier
kaleidoscope puzzle  version of Steven H. Cullinane

The King and the Corpse  —

"The king asked, in compensation for his toils
during this strangest of all the nights he had
ever known, that the twenty-four riddle tales
told him by the specter, together with the story
of the night itself, should be made known
over the whole earth and remain eternally
famous among men."

Frame Tale: 

Finnegans Wake  —

"The quad gospellers may own the targum
but any of the Zingari shoolerim may pick a peck
of kindlings yet from the sack of auld hensyne."

Monday, September 30, 2013

A Line for Frank

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 12:00 PM

(Continued from High White Noon
Finishing Up at Noon, and A New York Jew.)


Above: Frank Langella in "Starting Out in the Evening"

Below: Frank Langella and Johnny Depp in "The Ninth Gate"

"Not by the hair on your chinny-chin-chin."

IMAGE- Author's shirt with a Dharma Logo from 'Lost'

Above: Detail from a Wikipedia photo.

For the logo, see Lostpedia.

For some backstory, see Noether.

Those seeking an escape from the eightfold nightmare
represented by the Dharma logo above may consult
the remarks of Heisenberg (the real one, not the
Breaking Bad  version) to the Bavarian Academy
of Fine Arts.

Those who prefer Plato's cave to his geometry are
free to continue their Morphean adventures.

Saturday, September 21, 2013

Geometric Incarnation

The  Kummer 166  configuration  is the configuration of sixteen
6-sets within a 4×4 square array of points in which each 6-set
is determined by one of the 16 points of the array and
consists of the 3 other points in that point's row and the
3 other points in that point's column.

See Configurations and Squares.

The Wikipedia article Kummer surface  uses a rather poetic
phrase* to describe the relationship of the 166 to a number
of other mathematical concepts — "geometric incarnation."

Geometric Incarnation in the Galois Tesseract

Related material from finitegeometry.org —

IMAGE- 4x4 Geometry: Rosenhain and Göpel Tetrads and the Kummer Configuration

* Apparently from David Lehavi on March 18, 2007, at Citizendium .

Thursday, September 5, 2013

Moonshine II

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , , , , — m759 @ 10:31 AM

(Continued from yesterday)

The foreword by Wolf Barth in the 1990 Cambridge U. Press
reissue of Hudson's 1905 classic Kummer's Quartic Surface
covers some of the material in yesterday's post Moonshine.

The distinction that Barth described in 1990 was also described, and illustrated,
in my 1986 note "Picturing the smallest projective 3-space."  The affine 4-space
over the the finite Galois field GF(2) that Barth describes was earlier described—
within a 4×4 array like that pictured by Hudson in 1905— in a 1979 American
Mathematical Society abstract, "Symmetry invariance in a diamond ring."

"The distinction between Rosenhain and Goepel tetrads
is nothing but the distinction between isotropic and
non-isotropic planes in this affine space over the finite field."

The 1990 paragraph of Barth quoted above may be viewed as a summary
of these facts, and also of my March 17, 2013, note "Rosenhain and Göpel
Tetrads in PG(3,2)

Wednesday, August 14, 2013


Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 11:00 AM

(Continued from 24 hours ago and from May 9, 2012)

Quoted 24 hours ago in this journal—

Remark by Aldous Huxley on an artist's work:

"All the turmoil, all the emotions of the scenes
have been digested by the mind into a
grave intellectual whole."

Quoted in a video uploaded on May 9, 2012:

Norway Toilet Scene
IMAGE- Privy scene from 'Headhunters'

Norway dance (as interpreted by an American)

IMAGE- 'The geometry of the dance' is that of a tetrahedron, according to Peter Pesic

I prefer a different, Norwegian, interpretation of "the dance of four."

Related material: The clash between square and tetrahedral versions of PG(3,2).

Sunday, July 21, 2013


Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 5:18 AM

This is the weekend for Comic-Con International in San Diego.

The convention includes an art show. (Click above image to enlarge.)

Related material from Norway

IMAGE- The Kavli Prize logo, a Metatron cube

Suggested nominations for a Kavli Prize:

1.  Josefine Lyche's highly imaginative catalog page for
the current Norwegian art exhibition I de lange nætter,
​which mentions her interest in sacred geometry

2.  Sacred Geometry:  Drawing a Metatron Cube

and from San Diego

The Kavli Institutes logo:

IMAGE- Logo of the Kavli institutes

Tuesday, July 9, 2013

Vril Chick

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 4:30 AM

Profile picture of "Jo Lyxe" (Josefine Lyche) at Vimeo

Profile picture for "Jo Lyxe" (Josefine Lyche) at Vimeo

Compare to an image of Vril muse Maria Orsitsch.

From the catalog of a current art exhibition
(25 May – 31 August, 2013) in Norway,

Josefine Lyche
Born in 1973 in Bergen, Norway.
Lives and works in Oslo and Berlin.

Keywords (to help place my artwork in the
proper context): Aliens, affine geometry, affine
planes, affine spaces, automorphisms, binary
codes, block designs, classical groups, codes,
coding theory, collineations, combinatorial,
combinatorics, conjugacy classes, the Conwell
correspondence, correlations, Cullinane,
R. T. Curtis, design theory, the diamond theorem,
diamond theory, duads, duality, error correcting
codes, esoteric, exceptional groups,
extraterrestrials, finite fields, finite geometry, finite
groups, finite rings, Galois fields, generalized
quadrangles, generators, geometry, GF(2),
GF(4), the (24,12) Golay code, group actions,
group theory, Hadamard matrices, hypercube,
hyperplanes, hyperspace, incidence structures,
invariance, Karnaugh maps, Kirkman’s schoolgirls
problem, Latin squares, Leech lattice, linear
groups, linear spaces, linear transformations,
Magick, Mathieu groups, matrix theory, Meno,
Miracle Octad Generator, MOG, multiply transitive
groups, occultism, octahedron, the octahedral
group, Orsic, orthogonal arrays, outer automorphisms,
parallelisms, partial geometries,
permutation groups, PG(3,2), Plato, Platonic
solids, polarities, Polya-Burnside theorem, projective
geometry, projective planes, projective
spaces, projectivities, Pythagoras, reincarnation,
Reed-Muller codes, the relativity problem,
reverse engineering, sacred geometry, Singer
cycle, skew lines, Socrates, sporadic simple
groups, Steiner systems, Sylvester, symmetric,
symmetry, symplectic, synthemes, synthematic,
Theosophical Society tesseract, Tessla, transvections,
Venn diagrams, Vril society, Walsh
functions, Witt designs.

(See also the original catalog page.)

Clearly most of this (the non-highlighted parts) was taken
from my webpage Diamond Theory. I suppose I should be
flattered, but I am not thrilled to be associated with the
(apparently fictional) Vril Society.

For some background, see (for instance) 
Conspiracy Theories and Secret Societies for Dummies .

Friday, July 5, 2013

Mathematics and Narrative (continued)

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 6:01 PM

Short Story — (Click image for some details.)

IMAGE- Andries Brouwer and the Galois Tesseract

Parts of a longer story —

The Galois Tesseract and Priority.

Monday, June 10, 2013

Galois Coordinates

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 10:30 PM

Today's previous post on coordinate systems
suggests a look at the phrase "Galois coordinates."

A search shows that the phrase, though natural,
has apparently not been used before 2011* for solutions
to what Hermann Weyl called "the relativity problem."

A thorough historical essay on Galois coordinatization
in this sense would require more academic resources
than I have available. It would likely describe a number
of applications of Galois-field coordinates to square
(and perhaps to cubical) arrays that were studied before
1976, the date of my Diamond Theory  monograph.

But such a survey might not  find any such pre-1976
coordinatization of a 4×4 array  by the 16 elements
of the vector 4-space  over the Galois field with two
elements, GF(2).

Such coordinatizations are important because of their
close relationship to the Mathieu group 24 .

See a preprint by Anne Taormina and Katrin Wendland,
"The overarching finite symmetry group of Kummer
surfaces in the Mathieu group 24 ," with its remark
denying knowledge of any such coordinatization
prior to a 1989 paper by R. T. Curtis.

Related material: 

Some images related to Galois coordinates, excerpted
from a Google search today (click to enlarge)—

*  A rather abstract  2011 paper that uses the phrase
   "Galois coordinates" may have some implications 
   for the naive form of the relativity problem
   related to square and cubical arrays.

Saturday, June 1, 2013


Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 4:00 PM

"What we do may be small, but it has
  a certain character of permanence."

— G. H. Hardy, A Mathematician's Apology

The diamond theorem  group, published without acknowledgment
of its source by the Mathematical Association of America in 2011—

IMAGE- The diamond-theorem affine group of order 322,560, published without acknowledgment of its source by the Mathematical Association of America in 2011

Tuesday, May 28, 2013


The hypercube  model of the 4-space over the 2-element Galois field GF(2):

IMAGE- A hyperspace model of the 4D vector space over GF(2)

The phrase Galois tesseract  may be used to denote a different model
of the above 4-space: the 4×4 square.

MacWilliams and Sloane discussed the Miracle Octad Generator
(MOG) of R. T. Curtis further on in their book (see below), but did not
seem to realize in 1977 that the 4×4 structures within the MOG are
based on the Galois-tesseract model of the 4-space over GF(2).

IMAGE- Octads within the Curtis MOG, which uses a 4x4-array model of the 4D vector space over GF(2)

The thirty-five 4×4 structures within the MOG:

IMAGE- The 35 square patterns within the Curtis MOG

Curtis himself first described these 35 square MOG patterns
combinatorially, (as his title indicated) rather than
algebraically or geometrically:

IMAGE- R. T. Curtis's combinatorial construction of 4x4 patterns within the Miracle Octad Generator

A later book co-authored by Sloane, first published in 1988,
did  recognize the 4×4 MOG patterns as based on the 4×4
Galois-tesseract model.

Between the 1977 and 1988 Sloane books came the diamond theorem.

Update of May 29, 2013:

The Galois tesseract appeared in an early form in the journal
Computer Graphics and Art , Vol. 2, No. 1, February 1977
(the year the above MacWilliams-Sloane book was first published):

IMAGE- Hypercube and 4x4 matrix from the 1976 'Diamond Theory' preprint, as excerpted in 'Computer Graphics and Art'

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