Saturday, May 4, 2019

The Chinese Jars of Shing-Tung Yau

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 11:00 AM

The title refers to Calabi-Yau spaces.

T. S. Eliot —

Four Quartets

. . . Only by the form, the pattern,
Can words or music reach
The stillness, as a Chinese jar still
Moves perpetually in its stillness.

A less "cosmic" but still noteworthy code — The Golay code.

This resides in a 12-dimensional space over GF(2).

Related material from Plato and R. T. Curtis

Counting symmetries with the orbit-stabilizer theorem

A related Calabi-Yau "Chinese jar" first described in detail in 1905

Illustration of K3 surface related to Mathieu moonshine

A figure that may or may not be related to the 4x4x4 cube that
holds the classical  Chinese "cosmic code" — the I Ching


Monday, March 11, 2019

Ant-Man Meets Doctor Strange

Filed under: General — m759 @ 1:22 PM

IMAGE- Concepts of Space

The 4×4 square may also be called the Galois Tesseract .
By analogy, the 4x4x4 cube may be called the Galois Hexeract .

"Think outside the tesseract.

Monday, August 20, 2018

A Wheel for Ellmann

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 12:12 PM

The title was suggested by Ellmann's roulette-wheel analogy
in the previous post, "The Perception of Coincidence."

I Ching hexagrams as a Singer 63-cycle, plus zero

The Perception of Coincidence

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 2:15 AM

Ellmann on Joyce and 'the perception of coincidence' —

"Samuel Beckett has remarked that to Joyce reality was a paradigm,
an illustration of a possibly unstatable rule. Yet perhaps the rule
can be surmised. It is not a perception of order or of love; more humble
than either of these, it is the perception of coincidence. According to
this rule, reality, no matter how much we try to manipulate it, can only
assume certain forms; the roulette wheel brings up the same numbers
again and again; everyone and everything shift about in continual
movement, yet movement limited in its possibilities."

— Richard Ellmann, James Joyce , rev. ed.. Oxford, 1982, p. 551

Sunday, August 19, 2018

Possible Permutations

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 9:18 PM

John Calder, an independent British publisher who built a prestigious list
of authors like Samuel Beckett and Heinrich Böll and spiritedly defended
writers like Henry Miller against censorship, died on Aug. 13 in Edinburgh.
He was 91.

— Richard Sandomir in the online New York Times  this evening

On Beckett —


Also on August 13th


Thursday, October 12, 2017

East Meets West

Filed under: G-Notes,General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 8:09 PM

Saturday, February 18, 2017


Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 3:00 AM

The Log24 version  (Nov. 9, 2005, and later posts) —



Escher's 'Verbum'

Escher's Verbum

Solomon's Cube

Solomon's Cube

I Ching hexagrams as parts of 4x4x4 cube

Geometry of the I Ching

The Warner Brothers version

The Paramount version

See also related material in the previous post, Transformers.

Sunday, January 8, 2017

A Theory of Everything

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 7:11 PM

The title refers to the Chinese book the I Ching ,
the Classic of Changes .

The 64 hexagrams of the I Ching  may be arranged
naturally in a 4x4x4 cube. The natural form of transformations
("changes") of this cube is given by the diamond theorem.

A related post —

The Eightfold Cube, core structure of the I Ching

Thursday, April 14, 2016

Strange Awards

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 10:38 AM

From a review of a play by the late Anne Meara* —

"Meara, known primarily as an actress/comedian
(half of the team of Stiller & Meara, and mother of
Ben Stiller), is also an accomplished writer for the
stage; her After Play  was much acclaimed….
This new, more ambitious piece starts off with a sly
send-up of awards dinners as the late benefactor of
a wealthy foundation–the comically pixilated scientist
Herschel Strange (Jerry Stiller)–is seen on videotape.
This tape sets a light tone that is hilariously
heightened when John Shea, as Arthur Garden,
accepts the award given in Strange's name." 

Compare and contrast —

A circular I Ching

I of course prefer the Galois I Ching .

* See the May 25, 2015, post The Secret Life of the Public Mind.

Wednesday, April 13, 2016

Black List

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 1:00 PM

A search for "Max Black" in this journal yields some images
from a post of August 30, 2006 . . .

A circular I Ching

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060830-SeventhSymbol.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

"Jackson has identified the seventh symbol."
— Stargate

The "Jackson" above is played by the young James Spader,
who in an older version currently stars in "The Blacklist."

"… the memorable models of science are 'speculative instruments,'
to borrow I. A. Richards' happy title. They, too, bring about a wedding
of disparate subjects, by a distinctive operation of transfer of the
implications  of relatively well-organized cognitive fields. And as with
other weddings, their outcomes are unpredictable."

Max Black in Models and Metaphors , Cornell U. Press, 1962

Thursday, June 13, 2013


Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 2:13 PM

"Eight is a Gate." — Mnemonic rhyme

Today's previous post, Window, showed a version
of the Chinese character for "field"—

This suggests a related image

The related image in turn suggests

Unlike linear perspective, axonometry has no vanishing point,
and hence it does not assume a fixed position by the viewer.
This makes axonometry 'scrollable'. Art historians often speak of
the 'moving' or 'shifting' perspective in Chinese paintings.

Axonometry was introduced to Europe in the 17th century by
Jesuits returning from China.

Jan Krikke

As was the I Ching.  A related structure:

Thursday, September 27, 2012

Kummer and the Cube

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 7:11 PM

Denote the d-dimensional hypercube by  γd .

"… after coloring the sixty-four vertices of  γ6
alternately red and blue, we can say that
the sixteen pairs of opposite red vertices represent
the sixteen nodes of Kummer's surface, while
the sixteen pairs of opposite blue vertices
represent the sixteen tropes."

— From "Kummer's 16," section 12 of Coxeter's 1950
    "Self-dual Configurations and Regular Graphs"

Just as the 4×4 square represents the 4-dimensional
hypercube  γ4  over the two-element Galois field GF(2),
so the 4x4x4 cube represents the 6-dimensional
hypercube  γ6  over GF(2).

For religious interpretations, see
Nanavira Thera (Indian) and
I Ching  geometry (Chinese).

See also two professors in The New York Times
discussing images of the sacred in an op-ed piece
dated Sept. 26 (Yom Kippur).

Friday, February 11, 2011

Brightness at Noon (continued)

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 12:00 PM

From The Seventh Symbol

The image “http://www.log24.com/theory/images/GF64-63cycleA495.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

"First of all, I'd like to thank the Academy…"

Monday, September 7, 2009

Monday September 7, 2009

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 12:00 AM

Magic Boxes

"Somehow it seems to fill my head with ideas– only I don't exactly know what they are!…. Let's have a look at the garden first!"

— A passage from Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass. The "garden" part– but not the "ideas" part– was quoted by Jacques Derrida in Dissemination in the epigraph to Chapter 7, "The Time before First."

 on the passage:

Part I    "The Magic Box,"  shown on Turner Classic Movies earlier tonight

Part II: "Mimsy Were the Borogoves," a classic science fiction story:

"… he lifted a square, transparent crystal block, small enough to cup in his palm– much too small to contain the maze of apparatus within it. In a moment Scott had solved that problem. The crystal was a sort of magnifying glass, vastly enlarging the things inside the block. Strange things they were, too. Miniature people, for example– They moved. Like clockwork automatons, though much more smoothly. It was rather like watching a play."

Part III:  A Crystal Block

Cube, 4x4x4

Four coloring pencils, of four different colors

Image of pencils is by
Diane Robertson Design.

Related material:
"A Four-Color Theorem."

Part IV:

David Carradine displays a yellow book-- the Princeton I Ching.

"Click on the Yellow Book."

Saturday, September 5, 2009

Saturday September 5, 2009

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 10:31 PM
For the
Burning Man

'The Stars My Destination,' current edition (with cover slightly changed)

(Cover slightly changed.)

Background —

Part I:

Sophists (August 20th)

Part II:


Escher's 'Verbum'

Escher's Verbum

Solomon's Cube

Part III:

From August 25th

Equilateral triangle on a cube, each side's length equal to the square root of two

"Boo, boo, boo,
  square root of two.

Monday, July 27, 2009

Monday July 27, 2009

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 2:29 PM
Field Dance

The New York Times
on June 17, 2007:

 Design Meets Dance,
and Rules Are Broken

Yesterday's evening entry was
on the fictional sins of a fictional
mathematician and also (via a link
to St. Augustine's Day, 2006), on
the geometry of the I Ching* —

The eternal
combined with
the temporal:

Circular arrangement of I Ching hexagrams based on Singer 63-cycle in the Galois field GF(64)

The fictional mathematician's
name, noted here (with the Augustine-
I Ching link as a gloss) in yesterday's
evening entry, was Summerfield.

From the above Times article–
"Summerspace," a work by
 choreographer Merce Cunningham
and artist Robert Rauschenberg
that offers a competing
 vision of summer:

Summerspace — Set by Rauschenberg, choreography by Cunningham

Cunningham died last night.

John Cage, Merce Cunningham, Robert Rauschenberg in the 1960's

From left, composer John Cage,
choreographer Merce Cunningham,
and artist Robert Rauschenberg
in the 1960's

"When shall we three meet again?"

* Update of ca. 5:30 PM 7/27– today's online New York Times (with added links)– "The I Ching is the 'Book of Changes,' and Mr. Cunningham's choreography became an expression of the nature of change itself. He presented successive images without narrative sequence or psychological causation, and the audience was allowed to watch dance as one might watch successive events in a landscape or on a street corner."

Thursday, December 18, 2008

Thursday December 18, 2008

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 1:00 PM
Polar Opposites

Susan Sontag in
this week's New Yorker:
"The mind is a whore."

Embedded in the Sontag
article is the following:

The New Yorker on Santa's use of the word 'ho'

I Ching hexagrams as a Singer 63-cycle, plus zero

Act One

South Pole:

David Mamet's book 'A Whore's Profession'

Hexagram 21 in the King Wen sequence

Shi Ho

Act Two

North Pole:

Susan Sontag

Hexagram 2 in the King Wen sequence


"If baby I'm the bottom,
you're the top."
Cole Porter   

Happy birthday,
Steven Spielberg.

Tuesday, December 16, 2008

Tuesday December 16, 2008

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 8:00 PM
The Square Wheel

From The n-Category Cafe today:

David Corfield at 2:33 PM UTC quoting a chapter from a projected second volume of a biography:

"Grothendieck’s spontaneous reaction to whatever appeared to be causing a difficulty… was to adopt and embrace the very phenomenon that was problematic, weaving it in as an integral feature of the structure he was studying, and thus transforming it from a difficulty into a clarifying feature of the situation."

John Baez at 7:14 PM UTC on research:

"I just don’t want to reinvent a wheel, or waste my time inventing a square one."

For the adoption and embracing of such a problematic phenomenon, see The Square Wheel (this journal, Sept. 14, 2004).

For a connection of the square wheel with yesterday's entry for Julie Taymor's birthday, see a note from 2002:

Wolfram's Theory of Everything
and the Gameplayers of Zan

Related pictures–

From Wolfram:


A Square

From me:


A Wheel

Monday, October 6, 2008

Monday October 6, 2008

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 1:26 PM
Leap Day of Faith

Yesterday's entry contained the following unattributed quotation:

"One must join forces with friends of like mind."

As the link to Leap Day indicated, the source of the quotation is the I Ching.

Yesterday's entry also quoted the late Terence McKenna, a confused writer on psychosis and the I Ching. Lest the reader conclude that I consider McKenna or similar authors (for instance, Timothy Leary in Cuernavaca) as "friends of like mind," I would point rather to more sober students of the I Ching (cf. my June 2002 notes on philosophy, religion, and science) and to the late Scottish theologian John Macquarrie:

The Rev. John Macquarrie, Scottish Theologian, Dies at 87

Macquarrie's connection in this journal to the I Ching is, like that book itself, purely coincidental.  For details, click on the figure below.

A 4x4x4 cube

The persistent reader will
find a further link that
leads to an entry titled
"Notes on the I Ching."


McKenna's writing was of value to me for its (garbled) reference to a thought of Alfred North Whitehead:

"A colour is eternal.  It haunts time like a spirit.  It comes and it goes.  But where it comes it is the same colour.  It neither survives nor does it live.  It appears when it is wanted."

Science and the Modern World, 1925

Monday, June 16, 2008

Monday June 16, 2008

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 9:00 PM
Bloomsday for Nash:
The Revelation Game

(American Mathematical Society Feb. 2008
review of Steven Brams’s Superior Beings:
If They Exist, How Would We Know?)

(pdf, 15 megabytes)

“Brams does not attempt to prove or disprove God. He uses elementary ideas from game theory to create situations between a Person (P) and God (Supreme Being, SB) and discusses how each reacts to the other in these model scenarios….

In the ‘Revelation Game,’ for example, the Person (P) has two options:
1) P can believe in SB’s existence
2) P can not believe in SB’s existence
The Supreme Being also has two options:
1) SB can reveal Himself
2) SB can not reveal Himself

Each player also has a primary and secondary goal. For the Person, the primary goal is to have his belief (or non-belief) confirmed by evidence (or lack thereof). The secondary goal is to ‘prefer to believe in SB’s existence.’ For the Supreme Being, the primary goal is to have P believe in His existence, while the secondary goal is to not reveal Himself. These goals allow us to rank all the outcomes for each player from best (4) to worst (1). We end up with a matrix as follows (the first number in the parentheses represents the SB’s ranking for that box; the second number represents P’s ranking):

Revelation Game payoff matrix

The question we must answer is: what is the Nash equilibrium in this case?”


Lotteries on
June 16,
(No revelation)
New York
(No belief)

The Exorcist

No belief,
no revelation


4x4x4 cube summarizing geometry of the I Ching

without belief


Human Conflict Number Five album by The 10,000 Maniacs

Belief without


(A Cheap

Black disc from end of Ch. 17 of Ulysses

Belief and

The holy image

Black disc from end of Ch. 17 of Ulysses

denoting belief and revelation
may be interpreted as
a black hole or as a
symbol by James Joyce:


Going to dark bed there was a square round Sinbad the Sailor roc’s auk’s egg in the night of the bed of all the auks of the rocs of Darkinbad the Brightdayler.


Black disc from end of Ch. 17 in Ulysses

Ulysses, conclusion of Chapter 17

Sunday, May 25, 2008

Sunday May 25, 2008

Filed under: General — Tags: , — m759 @ 8:28 AM
"Caught up 
    in circles…"

— Song lyric,  
Cyndi Lauper


Alethiometer from
"The Golden Compass"


The 64 hexagrams of the I Ching in a circular arrangement suggested by a Singer 63-cycle

The I Ching
as Alethiometer


See also this morning's
later entry, illustrating
the next line of Cyndi
Lauper's classic lyric
"Time After Time" —

"… Confusion is    
  nothing new."

Saturday, February 23, 2008

Saturday February 23, 2008

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 12:00 PM

"An acute study of the links
between word and fact"
Nina daVinci Nichols

Thanks to a Virginia reader for a reminder:
Virginia /391062427/item.html? 2/22/2008 7:37 PM
The link is to a Log24 entry
that begins as follows…

An Exercise

of Power

Johnny Cash:
"And behold,
a white horse."

Springer logo - A chess knight
Chess Knight
(in German, Springer)

This, along with the "jumper" theme in the previous two entries, suggests a search on springer jumper.That search yields a German sports phrase, "Springer kommt!"  A search on that phrase yields the following:
"Liebe Frau vBayern,
mich würde interessieren wie man
mit diesem Hintergrund
zu Springer kommt?"

Background of "Frau vBayern" from thePeerage.com:

Anna-Natascha Prinzessin zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg 

F, #64640, b. 15 March 1978Last Edited=20 Oct 2005

     Anna-Natascha Prinzessin zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg was born on 15 March 1978. She is the daughter of Ludwig Ferdinand Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg and Countess Yvonne Wachtmeister af Johannishus. She married Manuel Maria Alexander Leopold Jerg Prinz von Bayern, son of Leopold Prinz von Bayern and Ursula Mohlenkamp, on 6 August 2005 at Nykøping, Södermanland, Sweden.


The date of the above "Liebe Frau vBayern" inquiry, Feb. 1, 2007, suggests the following:

From Log24 on
St. Bridget's Day, 2007:

The quotation
"Science is a Faustian bargain"
and the following figure–


The 63 yang-containing hexagrams of the I Ching as a Singer 63-cycle

From a short story by
the above Princess:

"'I don't even think she would have wanted to change you. But she for sure did not want to change herself. And her values were simply a part of her.' It was true, too. I would even go so far as to say that they were her basis, if you think about her as a geometrical body. That's what they couldn't understand, because in this age of the full understanding for stretches of values in favor of self-realization of any kind, it was a completely foreign concept."

To make this excellent metaphor mathematically correct,
change "geometrical body" to "space"… as in

"For Princeton's Class of 2007"

Review of a 2004 production of a 1972 Tom Stoppard play, "Jumpers"–

John Lahr on Tom Stoppard's play Jumpers

Related material:

Knight Moves (Log24, Jan. 16),
Kindergarten Theology (St. Bridget's Day, 2008),

The image “My space -(the affine space of six dimensions over the two-element field
(Click on image for details.)

Monday, May 28, 2007

Monday May 28, 2007

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 5:00 PM
and a Finite Model

Notes by Steven H. Cullinane
May 28, 2007

Part I: A Model of Space-Time

The following paper includes a figure illustrating Penrose's model of  "complexified, compactified Minkowski space-time as the Klein quadric in complex projective 5-space."
The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix07/070528-Twistor.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.
Click on picture to enlarge.

For some background on the Klein quadric and space-time, see Roger Penrose, "On the Origins of Twistor Theory," from Gravitation and Geometry: A Volume in Honor of Ivor Robinson, Bibliopolis, 1987.

Part II: A Corresponding Finite Model

The Klein quadric also occurs in a finite model of projective 5-space.  See a 1910 paper:

G. M. Conwell, The 3-space PG(3,2) and its group, Ann. of Math. 11, 60-76.

Conwell discusses the quadric, and the related Klein correspondence, in detail.  This is noted in a more recent paper by Philippe Cara:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix07/070528-Quadric.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

As Cara goes on to explain, the Klein correspondence underlies Conwell's discussion of eight heptads.  These play an important role in another correspondence, illustrated in the Miracle Octad Generator of R. T. Curtis, that may be used to picture actions of the large Mathieu group M24.

Related material:


The projective space PG(5,2), home of the Klein quadric in the finite model, may be viewed as the set of 64 points of the affine space AG(6,2), minus the origin.

The 64 points of this affine space may in turn be viewed as the 64 hexagrams of the Classic of Transformation, China's I Ching.

There is a natural correspondence between the 64 hexagrams and the 64 subcubes of a 4x4x4 cube.  This correspondence leads to a natural way to generate the affine group AGL(6,2).  This may in turn be viewed as a group of over a trillion natural transformations of the 64 hexagrams.

Geometry of the I Ching.
"Once Knecht confessed to his teacher that he wished to learn enough to be able to incorporate the system of the I Ching into the Glass Bead Game.  Elder Brother laughed.  'Go ahead and try,' he exclaimed.  'You'll see how it turns out.  Anyone can create a pretty little bamboo garden in the world.  But I doubt that the gardener would succeed in incorporating the world in his bamboo grove.'"
— Hermann Hesse, The Glass Bead Game,
  translated by Richard and Clara Winston

Thursday, February 1, 2007

Thursday February 1, 2007

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 7:59 AM

The image “http://www.log24.com/theory/images/GF64-63cycleA495.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

The above is from
Feb. 15, 2006.

"I don't believe in an afterlife, so I think this is it, and I'm trying to spend my time as best I can, and I'm trying to spend my time so I'm proud of what I've done, and I try not to do any things that I'm not proud of."

Jim Gray, 2002 interview (pdf)

Commencement Address (doc)
to Computer Science Division,
College of Letters and Science,
University of California, Berkeley,
by Jim Gray,
May 25, 2003:

"I was part of Berkeley's class of 1965. Things have changed a lot since then….

So, what's that got to do with you? Well, there is going to be MORE change…. Indeed, change is accelerating– Vernor Vinge suggests we are approaching singularities when social, scientific and economic change are so rapid that we cannot imagine what will happen next.  These futurists predict humanity will become post-human. Now, THAT! is change– a lot more than I have seen.

If it happens, the singularity will happen in your lifetime– and indeed, you are likely to make it happen."


I Ching, Hexagram 39

For other singular
sci-fi tales, click on
the above hexagram.

More from Gray's speech:

"I am an optimist. Science is a Faustian bargain– and I am betting on mankind muddling through. I grew up under the threat of atomic war; we've avoided that so far. Information Technology is a Faustian bargain. I am optimistic that we can have the good parts and protect ourselves from the worst part– but I am counting on your help in that."

"Not fare well,
But fare forward, voyagers."

— T. S. Eliot,
"The Dry Salvages"

Wednesday, August 30, 2006

Wednesday August 30, 2006

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 10:07 AM
The Seventh Symbol:

A Multicultural Farewell

to a winner of the
Nobel Prize for Literature,
the Egyptian author of
The Seventh Heaven:
Supernatural Stories

The image “http://www.log24.com/theory/images/GF64-63cycleA495.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060830-SeventhSymbol.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

"Jackson has identified
the seventh symbol."

Other versions of
the seventh symbol —

Chinese version:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060830-hexagram20.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

pictorial version:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060830-Box.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

algebraic version:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060830-Algebra.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

"… Max Black, the Cornell philosopher, and others have pointed out how 'perhaps every science must start with metaphor and end with algebra, and perhaps without the metaphor there would never have been any algebra' …."

— Max Black, Models and Metaphors, Cornell U. Press, 1962, page 242, as quoted in Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors, by Victor Witter Turner, Cornell U. Press, paperback, 1975, page 25

Monday, August 28, 2006

Monday August 28, 2006

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 1:00 AM
Today's Sinner:

Augustine of Hippo, who is said to
have died on this date in 430 A.D.

"He is, after all, not merely taking over a Neoplatonic ontology, but he is attempting to combine it with a scriptural tradition of a rather different sort, one wherein the divine attributes most prized in the Greek tradition (e.g. necessity, immutability, and atemporal eternity) must somehow be combined with the personal attributes (e.g. will, justice, and historical purpose) of the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob."

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy on Augustine

Here is a rather different attempt
to combine the eternal with the temporal:


The Eternal

Symbol of necessity,
immutability, and
atemporal eternity:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060828-Cube.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

For details, see
finite geometry of
the square and cube

The Temporal

Symbol of the
God of Abraham,
Isaac, and Jacob:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060828-Cloud.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

For details, see
Under God
(Aug. 11, 2006)

The eternal
combined with
the temporal:


Singer 63-cycle in the Galois field GF(64) used to order the I Ching hexagrams

Related material:

Hitler's Still Point and
the previous entry.

Tuesday, July 18, 2006

Tuesday July 18, 2006

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 1:00 PM

Sacred Order

In memory of Philip Rieff, who died on July 1, 2006:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060604-Roots.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Related material:

The image ?http://www.log24.com/theory/images/GF64-63cycleA495.gif? cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.


The image ?http://www.log24.com/theory/images/MySpace.jpg? cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

For details, see the
five Log24 entries ending
on the morning of
Midsummer Day, 2006.

Thanks to University Diaries for pointing out the essay on Rieff.
That essay says Rieff had "a dense, knotty, ironic style designed to warn off impatient readers. You had to unpack his aphorisms carefully. And this took a while. As a result, his thinking had a time-release effect." Good for him.  For a related essay (time-release effect unknown), see Hitler's Still Point: A Hate Speech for Harvard.

Friday, June 23, 2006

Friday June 23, 2006

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 9:00 PM
Go with the Flow

Review of a
Feb. 15, 2006, entry:

The image ?http://www.log24.com/theory/images/GF64-63cycleA495.gif? cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

The image ?http://www.log24.com/images/IChing/WilhelmHellmut.gif? cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Wednesday, February 15, 2006

Wednesday February 15, 2006

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 11:07 AM
Anthony Hopkins
Writes Screenplay
About God, Life & Death

These topics may be illuminated
by a study of the Chinese classics.

The image “http://www.log24.com/theory/images/GF64-63cycleA495.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

The image “http://www.log24.com/images/IChing/WilhelmHellmut.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

If we replace the Chinese word "I"
(change, transformation) with the
word "permutation," the relevance
of Western mathematics (which
some might call "the Logos") to
the I Ching ("Changes Classic")
beomes apparent.

Related material:

Hitler's Still Point,
Jung's Imago,
Solomon's Cube,
Geometry of the I Ching,
and Globe Award.

Yesterday's Valentine
may also have some relevance.

Tuesday, September 14, 2004

Tuesday September 14, 2004

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 3:00 PM

The Square Wheel

Harmonic analysis may be based either on the circular (i.e., trigonometric) functions or on the square (i. e., Walsh) functions.  George Mackey's masterly historical survey showed that the discovery of Fourier analysis, based on the circle, was of comparable importance (within mathematics) to the discovery (within general human history) of the wheel.  Harmonic analysis based on square functions– the "square wheel," as it were– is also not without its importance.

For some observations of Stephen Wolfram on square-wheel analysis, see pp. 573 ff. in Wolfram's magnum opus, A New Kind of Science (Wolfram Media, May 14, 2002).  Wolfram's illustration of this topic is closely related, as it happens, to a note on the symmetry of finite-geometry hyperplanes that I wrote in 1986.  A web page pointing out this same symmetry in Walsh functions was archived on Oct. 30, 2001.

That web page is significant (as later versions point out) partly because it shows that just as the phrase "the circular functions" is applied to the trigonometric functions, the phrase "the square functions" might well be applied to Walsh functions– which have, in fact, properties very like those of the trig functions.  For details, see Symmetry of Walsh Functions, updated today.

"While the reader may draw many a moral from our tale, I hope that the story is of interest for its own sake.  Moreover, I hope that it may inspire others, participants or observers, to preserve the true and complete record of our mathematical times."

From Error-Correcting Codes
Through Sphere Packings
To Simple Groups
by Thomas M. Thompson,
Mathematical Association of America, 1983

Saturday, July 20, 2002

Saturday July 20, 2002

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 10:13 PM

ABSTRACT: Finite projective geometry explains the surprising symmetry properties of some simple graphic designs– found, for instance, in quilts. Links are provided for applications to sporadic simple groups (via the "Miracle Octad Generator" of R. T. Curtis), to the connection between orthogonal Latin squares and projective spreads, and to symmetry of Walsh functions.
We regard the four-diamond figure D above as a 4×4 array of two-color diagonally-divided square tiles.

Let G be the group of 322,560 permutations of these 16 tiles generated by arbitrarily mixing random permutations of rows and of columns with random permutations of the four 2×2 quadrants.

THEOREM: Every G-image of D (as at right, below) has some ordinary or color-interchange symmetry.


For an animated version, click here.


Some of the patterns resulting from the action of G on D have been known for thousands of years. (See Jablan, Symmetry and Ornament, Ch. 2.6.) It is perhaps surprising that the patterns' interrelationships and symmetries can be explained fully only by using mathematics discovered just recently (relative to the patterns' age)– in particular, the theory of automorphism groups of finite geometries.

Using this theory, we can summarize the patterns' properties by saying that G is isomorphic to the affine group A on the linear 4-space over GF(2) and that the 35 structures of the 840 = 35 x 24 G-images of D are isomorphic to the 35 lines in the 3-dimensional projective space over GF(2).

This can be seen by viewing the 35 structures as three-sets of line diagrams, based on the three partitions of the four-set of square two-color tiles into two two-sets, and indicating the locations of these two-sets of tiles within the 4×4 patterns. The lines of the line diagrams may be added in a binary fashion (i.e., 1+1=0). Each three-set of line diagrams sums to zero– i.e., each diagram in a three-set is the binary sum of the other two diagrams in the set. Thus, the 35 three-sets of line diagrams correspond to the 35 three-point lines of the finite projective 3-space PG(3,2).

For example, here are the line diagrams for the figures above:

Shown below are the 15 possible line diagrams resulting from row/column/quadrant permutations. These 15 diagrams may, as noted above, be regarded as the 15 points of the projective 3-space PG(3,2).

The symmetry of the line diagrams accounts for the symmetry of the two-color patterns. (A proof shows that a 2nx2n two-color triangular half-squares pattern with such line diagrams must have a 2×2 center with a symmetry, and that this symmetry must be shared by the entire pattern.)

Among the 35 structures of the 840 4×4 arrays of tiles, orthogonality (in the sense of Latin-square orthogonality) corresponds to skewness of lines in the finite projective space PG(3,2). This was stated by the author in a 1978 note. (The note apparently had little effect. A quarter-century later, P. Govaerts, D. Jungnickel, L. Storme, and J. A. Thas wrote that skew (i.e., nonintersecting) lines in a projective space seem "at first sight not at all related" to orthogonal Latin squares.)

We can define sums and products so that the G-images of D generate an ideal (1024 patterns characterized by all horizontal or vertical "cuts" being uninterrupted) of a ring of 4096 symmetric patterns. There is an infinite family of such "diamond" rings, isomorphic to rings of matrices over GF(4).

The proof uses a decomposition technique for functions into a finite field that might be of more general use.

The underlying geometry of the 4×4 patterns is closely related to the Miracle Octad Generator of R. T. Curtis– used in the construction of the Steiner system S(5,8,24)– and hence is also related to the Leech lattice, which, as Walter Feit has remarked, "is a blown up version of S(5,8,24)."

For a movable JavaScript version of these 4×4 patterns, see The Diamond 16 Puzzle.

The above is an expanded version of Abstract 79T-A37, "Symmetry invariance in a diamond ring," by Steven H. Cullinane, Notices of the American Mathematical Society, February 1979, pages A-193, 194.

For a discussion of other cases of the theorem, click here.

Related pages:

The Diamond 16 Puzzle

Diamond Theory in 1937:
A Brief Historical Note

Notes on Finite Geometry

Geometry of the 4×4 Square

Binary Coordinate Systems

The 35 Lines of PG(3,2)

Map Systems:
Function Decomposition over a Finite Field

The Diamond Theorem–
The 2×2, the 2x2x2, the 4×4, and the 4x4x4 Cases

Diamond Theory

Latin-Square Geometry

Walsh Functions


The Diamond Theory of Truth

Geometry of the I Ching

Solomon's Cube and The Eightfold Way

Crystal and Dragon in Diamond Theory

The Form, the Pattern

The Grid of Time

Block Designs

Finite Relativity

Theme and Variations

Models of Finite Geometries

Quilt Geometry

Pattern Groups

The Fano Plane Revisualized,
or the Eightfold Cube

The Miracle Octad Generator


Visualizing GL(2,p)

Jung's Imago

Author's home page

AMS Mathematics Subject Classification:

20B25 (Group theory and generalizations :: Permutation groups :: Finite automorphism groups of algebraic, geometric, or combinatorial structures)

05B25 (Combinatorics :: Designs and configurations :: Finite geometries)

51E20 (Geometry :: Finite geometry and special incidence structures :: Combinatorial structures in finite projective spaces)

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Page created Jan. 6, 2006, by Steven H. Cullinane      diamondtheorem.com


Initial Xanga entry.  Updated Nov. 18, 2006.

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