Monday, June 26, 2017

Upgrading to Six

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 9:00 PM

This post was suggested by the previous post — Four Dots —
and by the phrase "smallest perfect" in this journal.

Related material (click to enlarge) —

Detail —

From the work of Eddington cited in 1974 by von Franz —

See also Dirac and Geometry and Kummer in this journal.

Updates from the morning of June 27 —

Ron Shaw on Eddington's triads "associated in conjugate pairs" —

For more about hyperbolic  and isotropic  lines in PG(3,2),
see posts tagged Diamond Theorem Correlation.

For Shaw, in memoriam — See Contrapuntal Interweaving and The Fugue.

Friday, June 16, 2017

Chalkroom Jungle

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , , — m759 @ 3:33 AM

At MASS MoCA, the installation "Chalkroom" quotes a lyric —

Oh beauty in all its forms
funny how hatred can also be a beautiful thing
When it's as sharp as a knife
as hard as a diamond


— From "One Beautiful Evening," by Laurie Anderson.

See also the previous post and "Smallest Perfect" in this journal.

Tuesday, June 13, 2017

Annals of Embedded Space

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 12:55 AM

Max Maxfield: 'What's Happening in Embedded Space,' April 13, 2017

This  journal on the above date —

Thursday, April 13, 2017


Tags:  — m759 @ 7:00 PM 

See "Smallest Perfect" in this journal.


Making Space

— m759 @ 6:00 PM 

The New York Times  online today:

At MoMA, Women at Play in the Fields of Abstraction

In Zoe's fall, we sinnèd all.

Thursday, May 11, 2017

In Memoriam

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 9:00 PM

See also Chandrasekharan in a Log24 search for Weyl+Schema.

Update of 6:16 AM Friday, May 12, 2017 —

The phrase "smallest perfect universe" is from Burkard Polster (2001).

Sunday, April 30, 2017


Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 2:00 PM

See also the Potter  and the field  of the previous post.

"Authority is connected with the word ‘auto’, which means ‘self’,
as in ‘automobile’ and ‘autobiography’. But if authority is related
to the ‘self’, which self should we start with?"

— Potter, Ellis. How Do You Know That?  (p. 7), Kindle Edition. 

Click the above book cover for a post on
the four-square Chinese symbol for 'field.'

* A footnote . . . 

for those who, like the Potter of the previous post,
are epistemologically challenged

Related scripture —

"Authority is connected with the word ‘auto’, which means ‘self’,
as in ‘automobile’ and ‘autobiography’. But if authority is related
to the ‘self’, which self should we start with?"

— Potter, Ellis. How Do You Know That?  (p. 7), Kindle Edition. 

"Off the top of my head . . . ." — Phrase attributed to Ellis Potter

For the Church of Synchronology — See also this  journal
on the above interview date — September 20, 2010
as well as "Smallest Perfect" and "Unfolding."

Thursday, April 13, 2017


Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 7:00 PM

See "Smallest Perfect" in this journal.

Thursday, September 15, 2016

The Smallest Perfect Number/Universe

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 6:29 AM

The smallest perfect number,* six, meets
"the smallest perfect universe,"** PG(3,2).

IMAGE- Geometry of the Six-Set, Steven H. Cullinane, April 23, 2013

  * For the definition of "perfect number," see any introductory
    number-theory text that deals with the history of the subject.
** The phrase "smallest perfect universe" as a name for PG(3,2),
     the projective 3-space over the 2-element Galois field GF(2),
     was coined by math writer Burkard Polster. Cullinane's square
     model of PG(3,2) differs from the earlier tetrahedral model
     discussed by Polster.

Tuesday, August 9, 2016


Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 9:29 PM

See "Smallest Perfect" and "We Are Six."

Monday, May 30, 2016

Perfect Universe

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 7:00 PM

(A sequel to the previous post, Perfect Number)

Since antiquity,  six has been known as
"the smallest perfect number." The word "perfect"
here means that a number is the sum of its 
proper divisors — in the case of six: 1, 2, and 3.

The properties of a six-element set (a "6-set") 
divided into three 2-sets and divided into two 3-sets
are those of what Burkard Polster, using the same 
adjective in a different sense, has called 
"the smallest perfect universe" — PG(3,2), the projective
3-dimensional space over the 2-element Galois field.

A Google search for the phrase "smallest perfect universe"
suggests a turnaround in meaning , if not in finance, 
that might please Yahoo CEO Marissa Mayer on her birthday —

The semantic  turnaround here in the meaning  of "perfect"
is accompanied by a model  turnaround in the picture  of PG(3,2) as
Polster's tetrahedral  model is replaced by Cullinane's square  model.

Further background from the previous post —

See also Kirkman's Schoolgirl Problem.

Friday, December 21, 2012


Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 4:30 PM

The Moore correspondence may be regarded
as an analogy between the 35 partitions of an
8-set into two 4-sets and the 35 lines in the
finite projective space PG(3,2).

Closely related to the Moore correspondence
is a correspondence (or analogy) between the
15 2-subsets of a 6-set and the 15 points of PG(3,2).

An analogy between  the two above analogies
is supplied by the exceptional outer automorphism of S6.

The 2-subsets of a 6-set are the points of a PG(3,2),
Picturing outer automorphisms of  S6, and
A linear complex related to M24.

(Background: InscapesInscapes III: PG(2,4) from PG(3,2),
and Picturing the smallest projective 3-space.)

* For some context, see Analogies and
  "Smallest Perfect Universe" in this journal.

Thursday, February 9, 2012

ART WARS continued

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 1:06 PM

On the Complexity of Combat—

(Click to enlarge.)

The above article (see original pdf), clearly of more 
theoretical than practical interest, uses the concept
of "symmetropy" developed by some Japanese

For some background from finite geometry, see
Symmetry of Walsh Functions. For related posts
in this journal, see Smallest Perfect Universe.

Update of 7:00 PM EST Feb. 9, 2012—

Background on Walsh-function symmetry in 1982—

(Click image to enlarge. See also original pdf.)

Note the somewhat confusing resemblance to
a four-color decomposition theorem
used in the proof of the diamond theorem

Tuesday, June 15, 2010

Imago, Imago, Imago

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: , , , — m759 @ 11:07 AM

Recommended— an online book—

Flight from Eden: The Origins of Modern Literary Criticism and Theory,
by Steven Cassedy, U. of California Press, 1990.

See in particular

Valéry and the Discourse On His Method.

Pages 156-157—

Valéry saw the mind as essentially a relational system whose operation he attempted to describe in the language of group mathematics. “Every act of understanding is based on a group,” he says (C, 1:331). “My specialty—reducing everything to the study of a system closed on itself and finite” (C, 19: 645). The transformation model came into play, too. At each moment of mental life the mind is like a group, or relational system, but since mental life is continuous over time, one “group” undergoes a “transformation” and becomes a different group in the next moment. If the mind is constantly being transformed, how do we account for the continuity of the self? Simple; by invoking the notion of the invariant. And so we find passages like this one: “The S[elf] is invariant, origin, locus or field, it’s a functional property of consciousness” (C, 15:170 [2: 315]). Just as in transformational geometry, something remains fixed in all the projective transformations of the mind’s momentary systems, and that something is the Self (le Moi, or just M, as Valéry notates it so that it will look like an algebraic variable). Transformation theory is all over the place. “Mathematical science . . . reduced to algebra, that is, to the analysis of the transformations of a purely differential being made up of homogeneous elements, is the most faithful document of the properties of grouping, disjunction, and variation in the mind” (O, 1:36). “Psychology is a theory of transformations, we just need to isolate the invariants and the groups” (C, 1:915). “Man is a system that transforms itself” (C, 2:896).


  Paul Valéry, Oeuvres (Paris: Pléiade, 1957-60)

C   Valéry, Cahiers, 29 vols. (Paris: Centre National de le Recherche Scientifique, 1957-61)

Compare Jung’s image in Aion  of the Self as a four-diamond figure:


and Cullinane’s purely geometric four-diamond figure:


For a natural group of 322,560 transformations acting on the latter figure, see the diamond theorem.

What remains fixed (globally, not pointwise) under these transformations is the system  of points and hyperplanes from the diamond theorem. This system was depicted by artist Josefine Lyche in her installation “Theme and Variations” in Oslo in 2009.  Lyche titled this part of her installation “The Smallest Perfect Universe,” a phrase used earlier by Burkard Polster to describe the projective 3-space PG(3,2) that contains these points (at right below) and hyperplanes (at left below).

Image-- Josefine Lyche's combination of Polster's phrase with<br /> Cullinane's images in her gallery show, Oslo, 2009-- 'The Smallest<br /> Perfect Universe -- Points and Hyperplanes'

Although the system of points (at right above) and hyperplanes (at left above) exemplifies Valéry’s notion of invariant, it seems unlikely to be the sort of thing he had in mind as an image of the Self.

Friday, May 21, 2010

The Oslo Version

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 9:29 AM

From an art exhibition in Oslo last year–

Image-- Josefine Lyche's combination of Polster's phrase with Cullinane's images in her gallery show, Oslo, 2009-- 'The Smallest Perfect Universe -- Points and Hyperplanes'

The artist's description above is not in correct left-to-right order.
Actually the hyperplanes above are at left, the points at right.

Compare to "Picturing the Smallest Projective 3-Space,"
a note of mine from April 26, 1986—

Image-- Points and hyperplanes in the finite 3-space PG(3,2), April 1986, by Cullinane

Click for the original full version.

Compare also to Burkard Polster's original use of
the phrase "the smallest perfect universe."

Polster's tetrahedral model of points and hyperplanes
is quite different from my own square version above.

See also Cullinane on Polster.

Here are links to the gallery press release
and the artist's own photos.

Wednesday, February 28, 2007

Wednesday February 28, 2007

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 7:59 AM
of Geometry

The title of Euclid’s Elements is, in Greek, Stoicheia.

From Lectures on the Science of Language,
by Max Muller, fellow of All Souls College, Oxford.
New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1890, pp. 88-90 –


“The question is, why were the elements, or the component primary parts of things, called stoicheia by the Greeks? It is a word which has had a long history, and has passed from Greece to almost every part of the civilized world, and deserves, therefore, some attention at the hand of the etymological genealogist.

Stoichos, from which stoicheion, means a row or file, like stix and stiches in Homer. The suffix eios is the same as the Latin eius, and expresses what belongs to or has the quality of something. Therefore, as stoichos means a row, stoicheion would be what belongs to or constitutes a row….

Hence stoichos presupposes a root stich, and this root would account in Greek for the following derivations:–

  1. stix, gen. stichos, a row, a line of soldiers
  2. stichos, a row, a line; distich, a couplet
  3. steichoestichon, to march in order, step by step; to mount
  4. stoichos, a row, a file; stoichein, to march in a line

In German, the same root yields steigen, to step, to mount, and in Sanskrit we find stigh, to mount….

Stoicheia are the degrees or steps from one end to the other, the constituent parts of a whole, forming a complete series, whether as hours, or letters, or numbers, or parts of speech, or physical elements, provided always that such elements are held together by a systematic order.”

Monday, September 4, 2006

Monday September 4, 2006

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — m759 @ 7:20 PM
In a Nutshell:
The Seed

"The symmetric group S6 of permutations of 6 objects is the only symmetric group with an outer automorphism….

This outer automorphism can be regarded as the seed from which grow about half of the sporadic simple groups…."

Noam Elkies, February 2006

This "seed" may be pictured as

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/DTinscapes4-2.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

group actions on a linear complex

within what Burkard Polster has called "the smallest perfect universe"– PG(3,2), the projective 3-space over the 2-element field.

Related material: yesterday's entry for Sylvester's birthday.

Sunday, April 25, 2004

Sunday April 25, 2004

Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 3:31 PM

Small World

Added a note to 4×4 Geometry:

The 4×4 square model  lets us visualize the projective space PG(3,2) as well as the affine space AG(4,2).  For tetrahedral and circular models of PG(3,2), see the work of Burkard Polster.  The following is from an advertisement of a talk by Polster on PG(3,2).

The Smallest Perfect Universe

“After a short introduction to finite geometries, I’ll take you on a… guided tour of the smallest perfect universe — a complex universe of breathtaking abstract beauty, consisting of only 15 points, 35 lines and 15 planes — a space whose overall design incorporates and improves many of the standard features of the three-dimensional Euclidean space we live in….

Among mathematicians our perfect universe is known as PG(3,2) — the smallest three-dimensional projective space. It plays an important role in many core mathematical disciplines such as combinatorics, group theory, and geometry.”

— Burkard Polster, May 2001

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