Recommended— an online book—

*Flight from Eden: The Origins of Modern Literary Criticism and Theory*,

by Steven Cassedy, U. of California Press, 1990.

See in particular

Pages 156-157—

Valéry saw the mind as essentially a relational system whose operation he attempted to describe in the language of group mathematics. “Every act of understanding is based on a group,” he says (*C,* 1:331). “My specialty—reducing everything to the study of a system closed on itself and finite” (*C,* 19: 645). The transformation model came into play, too. At each moment of mental life the mind is like a group, or relational system, but since mental life is continuous over time, one “group” undergoes a “transformation” and becomes a different group in the next moment. If the mind is constantly being transformed, how do we account for the continuity of the self? Simple; by invoking the notion of the invariant. And so we find passages like this one: “The S[elf] is invariant, origin, locus or field, it’s a functional property of consciousness” (*C,* 15:170 [2: 315]). Just as in transformational geometry, something remains fixed in all the projective transformations of the mind’s momentary systems, and that something is the Self (*le Moi,* or just M, as Valéry notates it so that it will look like an algebraic variable). Transformation theory is all over the place. “Mathematical science . . . reduced to algebra, that is, to the analysis of the transformations of a purely differential being made up of homogeneous elements, is the most faithful document of the properties of grouping, disjunction, and variation in the mind” (*O,* 1:36). “Psychology is a theory of transformations, we just need to isolate the invariants and the groups” (*C,* 1:915). “Man is a system that transforms itself” (*C,* 2:896).

Notes:

*O * Paul Valéry, * Oeuvres* (Paris: Pléiade, 1957-60)

*C * Valéry, * Cahiers,* 29 vols. (Paris: Centre National de le Recherche Scientifique, 1957-61)

Compare Jung’s image in *Aion* of the Self as a four-diamond figure:

and Cullinane’s purely geometric four-diamond figure:

For a natural group of 322,560 transformations acting on the latter figure, see the diamond theorem.

What remains fixed (globally, not pointwise) under these transformations is the *system* of points and hyperplanes from the diamond theorem. This system was depicted by artist Josefine Lyche in her installation “Theme and Variations” in Oslo in 2009. Lyche titled this part of her installation “The Smallest Perfect Universe,” a phrase used earlier by Burkard Polster to describe the projective 3-space PG(3,2) that contains these points (at right below) and hyperplanes (at left below).

Although the system of points (at right above) and hyperplanes (at left above) exemplifies Valéry’s notion of invariant, it seems unlikely to be the sort of thing he had in mind as an image of the Self.