Tuesday, March 5, 2019

The Eightfold Cube and PSL(2,7)

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 10:45 PM

For PSL(2,7), this is ((49-1)(49-7))/((7-1)(2))=168.

The group GL(3,2), also of order 168, acts naturally
on the set of seven cube-slicings below —

Another way to picture the seven natural slicings —

Application of the above images to picturing the
isomorphism of PSL(2,7) with GL(3,2) —

Why PSL(2,7) is isomorphic to GL(3.2)

For a more detailed proof, see . . .

Thursday, April 9, 2020

Symmetry: Toro, Torino

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 12:41 PM

For the Toro , see  Pierre Cartier in 2001 on the barber of Seville and
The evolution of concepts of space and symmetry.”

For the Torino , see . . .

“… the ultimate goal of the present essay
which is to illustrate the historic
evolution of the concepts of Space  and Symmetry

Pp. 157-158 of the above book.

See also Fré et al. , “The role of PSL(2,7) in M-theory”
(2018-2019) at  http://arxiv.org/abs/1812.11049v2 ,
esp. Section 4, “Theory of the simple group PSL(2,7)
on pages 11-27, and remarks on PSL(2,7) in this  journal.

Related material —

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Caballo Blanco

Filed under: General — Tags: , , , — m759 @ 9:02 AM

The key  is the cocktail that begins the proceedings.”

– Brian Harley, Mate in Two Moves


“Just as these lines that merge to form a key
Are as chess squares . . . .” — Katherine Neville, The Eight

“The complete projective group of collineations and dualities of the
[projective] 3-space is shown to be of order [in modern notation] 8! ….
To every transformation of the 3-space there corresponds
a transformation of the [projective] 5-space. In the 5-space, there are
determined 8 sets of 7 points each, ‘heptads’ ….”

— George M. Conwell, “The 3-space PG (3, 2) and Its Group,”
The Annals of Mathematics , Second Series, Vol. 11, No. 2 (Jan., 1910),
pp. 60-76.

“It must be remarked that these 8 heptads are the key  to an elegant proof….”

— Philippe Cara, “RWPRI Geometries for the Alternating Group A8,” in
Finite Geometries: Proceedings of the Fourth Isle of Thorns Conference
(July 16-21, 2000), Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, ed. Aart Blokhuis,
James W. P. Hirschfeld, Dieter Jungnickel, and Joseph A. Thas, pp. 61-97.

Monday, October 7, 2019

Berlekamp Garden vs. Kinder Garten

Filed under: General — m759 @ 11:00 PM

Stevens's Omega and Alpha (see previous post) suggest a review.

Omega — The Berlekamp Garden.  See Misère Play (April 8, 2019).
Alpha  —  The Kinder Garten.  See Eighfold Cube.

Illustrations —

The sculpture above illustrates Klein's order-168 simple group.
So does the sculpture below.

Froebel's Third Gift: A cube made up of eight subcubes  

Cube Bricks 1984 —

An Approach to Symmetric Generation of the Simple Group of Order 168

Monday, March 25, 2019


Filed under: General — Tags: , , , , , — m759 @ 1:46 PM

(Continued from the previous post.)

In-Between "Spacing" and the "Chôra "
in Derrida: A Pre-Originary Medium?

By Louise Burchill

(Ch. 2 in Henk Oosterling & Ewa Plonowska Ziarek (Eds.),  Intermedialities: Philosophy, Arts, Politics , Lexington Books, October 14, 2010)

"The term 'spacing' ('espacement ') is absolutely central to Derrida's entire corpus, where it is indissociable from those of différance  (characterized, in the text from 1968 bearing this name, as '[at once] spacing [and] temporizing' 1), writing  (of which 'spacing' is said to be 'the fundamental property' 2) and deconstruction (with one of Derrida's last major texts, Le Toucher: Jean-Luc Nancy , specifying 'spacing ' to be 'the first word of any deconstruction' 3)."

1  Jacques Derrida, “La Différance,” in Marges – de la philosophie  (Paris: Minuit, 1972), p. 14. Henceforth cited as  D  .

2  Jacques Derrida, “Freud and the Scene of Writing,” trans. A. Bass, in Writing and  Difference  (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), p. 217. Henceforth cited as FSW .

3  Jacques Derrida, Le Toucher, Jean-Luc Nancy  (Paris: Galilée, 2000), p. 207.

. . . .

"… a particularly interesting point is made in this respect by the French philosopher, Michel Haar. After remarking that the force Derrida attributes to différance  consists simply of the series of its effects, and is, for this reason, 'an indefinite process of substitutions or permutations,' Haar specifies that, for this process to be something other than a simple 'actualisation' lacking any real power of effectivity, it would need “a soubassement porteur ' – let’s say a 'conducting underlay' or 'conducting medium' which would not, however, be an absolute base, nor an 'origin' or 'cause.' If then, as Haar concludes, différance  and spacing show themselves to belong to 'a pure Apollonism' 'haunted by the groundless ground,' which they lack and deprive themselves of,16 we can better understand both the threat posed by the 'figures' of space and the mother in the Timaeus  and, as a result, Derrida’s insistent attempts to disqualify them. So great, it would seem, is the menace to différance  that Derrida must, in a 'properly' apotropaic  gesture, ward off these 'figures' of an archaic, chthonic, spatial matrix in any and all ways possible…."

16  Michel Haar, “Le jeu de Nietzsche dans Derrida,” Revue philosophique de la France et de l’Etranger  2 (1990): 207-227.

. . . .

… "The conclusion to be drawn from Democritus' conception of rhuthmos , as well as from Plato's conception of the chôra , is not, therefore, as Derrida would have it, that a differential field understood as an originary site of inscription would 'produce' the spatiality of space but, on the contrary, that 'differentiation in general' depends upon a certain 'spatial milieu' – what Haar would name a 'groundless ground' – revealed as such to be an 'in-between' more 'originary' than the play of differences it in-forms. As such, this conclusion obviously extends beyond Derrida's conception of 'spacing,' encompassing contemporary philosophy's continual privileging of temporization in its elaboration of a pre-ontological 'opening' – or, shall we say, 'in-between.'

For permutations and a possible "groundless ground," see
the eightfold cube and group actions both on a set of eight
building blocks arranged in a cube (a "conducting base") and
on the set of seven natural interstices (espacements )  between
the blocks. Such group actions provide an elementary picture of
the isomorphism between the groups PSL(2,7) (acting on the
eight blocks) and GL(3,2) (acting on the seven interstices).


For the Church of Synchronology

See also, from the reported publication date of the above book
Intermedialities , the Log24 post Synchronicity.

Monday, February 25, 2019

The Sartwell Illusion

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 2:56 PM

See Sartwell in this journal and . . .

"Read something that means something." — New Yorker  motto.

From a search for Alperin in this  journal —


Why PSL(2,7) is isomorphic to GL(3.2)

Tuesday, December 25, 2018


Filed under: General — m759 @ 11:42 AM

"So to obtain the isomorphism from L2(7) onto L3(2) we simply
multiply any given permutation of L2(7) by the affine translation
that restores to its rightful place."

— Sphere Packings, Lattices and Groups ,
by John H. Conway and N. J. A. Sloane.
First edition, 1988, published by Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.
Chapter 11 (by J. H. Conway), "The Golay Codes and the Mathieu Groups," 
Section 12, "The trio group 26:(S3×L2(7))"

Compare and contrast —

Why PSL(2,7) is isomorphic to GL(3.2)

This post was suggested by a New York Times  headline today —

Tuesday, November 6, 2018

On Mathematical Beauty

Filed under: G-Notes,General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 2:18 AM

A phrase from the previous post —
"a size-eight dame in a size-six dress" —
suggests a review . . .

See as well the diamond-theorem correlation and . . .

Why PSL(2,7) is isomorphic to GL(3.2)

Wednesday, August 15, 2018

An Exceptional Isomorphism

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , — m759 @ 5:40 AM

Why PSL(2,7) is isomorphic to GL(3.2)

From previous posts on this topic —



Tuesday, August 14, 2018


Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , , — m759 @ 12:06 AM




Thursday, August 9, 2018

True Grids

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 7:59 PM

From a search in this journal for "True Grid,"
a fanciful description of  the 3×3 grid —

"This is the garden of Apollo,
the field of Reason…."
John Outram, architect    

A fanciful instance of the 4×2 grid in
a scene from the film "The Master" —

IMAGE- Joaquin Phoenix, corridor scene in 'The Master'

A fanciful novel referring to the number 8,
and a not -so-fanciful reference:


Illustrated above are Katherine Neville's novel The Eight  and the
"knight" coordinatization of the 4×2 grid from a page on the exceptional
isomorphism between PSL(3,2) (alias GL(3,2)) and PSL(2,7) — groups
of, respectively, degree 7 and degree 8.

Literature related to the above remarks on grids:

Ross Douthat's New York Times  column yesterday purported, following
a 1946 poem by Auden, to contrast students of the humanities with
technocrats by saying that the former follow Hermes, the latter Apollo.

I doubt that Apollo would agree.

Wednesday, August 8, 2018


Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , , — m759 @ 6:00 AM

From mathoverflow.net on Dec. 7, 2016 —

The exceptional isomorphism between
PGL(3,2) and PSL(2,7): geometric origin?

Essentially the same question was asked earlier at

math.stackexchange.com on Aug. 2, 2010.

See also this  journal in November 2017 —

"Read something that means something."
                — New Yorker  ad

'Knight' octad labeling by the 8 points of the projective line over GF(7) .

Background — Relativity Problem in Log24.

Thursday, May 31, 2007

Thursday May 31, 2007

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 8:06 PM

Blitz by anonymous
New Delhi user

From Wikipedia on 31 May, 2007:

Shown below is a list of 25 alterations to Wikipedia math articles made today by user

All of the alterations involve removal of links placed by user Cullinane (myself).

The 122.163… IP address is from an internet service provider in New Delhi, India.

The New Delhi anonymous user was apparently inspired by an earlier blitz by Wikipedia administrator Charles Matthews. (See User talk: Cullinane.)

Related material:

Ashay Dharwadker and Usenet Postings
and Talk: Four color theorem/Archive 2.
See also some recent comments from 122.163…
at Talk: Four color theorem.

May 31, 2007, alterations by

  1. 17:17 Orthogonality (rm spam)
  2. 17:16 Symmetry group (rm spam)
  3. 17:14 Boolean algebra (rm spam)
  4. 17:12 Permutation (rm spam)
  5. 17:10 Boolean logic (rm spam)
  6. 17:08 Gestalt psychology (rm spam)
  7. 17:05 Tesseract (rm spam)
  8. 17:02 Square (geometry) (rm spam)
  9. 17:00 Fano plane (rm spam)
  10. 16:55 Binary Golay code (rm spam)
  11. 16:53 Finite group (rm spam)
  12. 16:52 Quaternion group (rm spam)
  13. 16:50 Logical connective (rm spam)
  14. 16:48 Mathieu group (rm spam)
  15. 16:45 Tutte–Coxeter graph (rm spam)
  16. 16:42 Steiner system (rm spam)
  17. 16:40 Kaleidoscope (rm spam)
  18. 16:38 Efforts to Create A Glass Bead Game (rm spam)
  19. 16:36 Block design (rm spam)
  20. 16:35 Walsh function (rm spam)
  21. 16:24 Latin square (rm spam)
  22. 16:21 Finite geometry (rm spam)
  23. 16:17 PSL(2,7) (rm spam)
  24. 16:14 Translation plane (rm spam)
  25. 16:13 Block design test (rm spam)

The deletions should please Charles Matthews and fans of Ashay Dharwadker’s work as a four-color theorem enthusiast and as editor of the Open Directory sections on combinatorics and on graph theory.

There seems little point in protesting the deletions while Wikipedia still allows any anonymous user to change their articles.

Cullinane 23:28, 31 May 2007 (UTC)

Wednesday, May 4, 2005

Wednesday May 4, 2005

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 1:00 PM
The Fano Plane


 The Eightfold Cube

or, The Eightfold Cube

Here is the usual model of the seven points and seven lines (including the circle) of the smallest finite projective plane (the Fano plane):
The image “http://www.log24.com/theory/images/Fano.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Every permutation of the plane's points that preserves collinearity is a symmetry of the  plane.  The group of symmetries of the Fano plane is of order 168 and is isomorphic to the group  PSL(2,7) = PSL(3,2) = GL(3,2). (See Cameron on linear groups (pdf).)

The above model indicates with great clarity six symmetries of the plane– those it shares with the equilateral triangle.  It does not, however, indicate where the other 162 symmetries come from.  

Shown below is a new model of this same projective plane, using partitions of cubes to represent points:


Fano plane with cubes as points
The cubes' partitioning planes are added in binary (1+1=0) fashion.  Three partitioned cubes are collinear if and only if their partitioning planes' binary sum equals zero.


The second model is useful because it lets us generate naturally all 168 symmetries of the Fano plane by splitting a cube into a set of four parallel 1x1x2 slices in the three ways possible, then arbitrarily permuting the slices in each of the three sets of four. See examples below.


Fano plane group - generating permutations

For a proof that such permutations generate the 168 symmetries, see Binary Coordinate Systems.


(Note that this procedure, if regarded as acting on the set of eight individual subcubes of each cube in the diagram, actually generates a group of 168*8 = 1,344 permutations.  But the group's action on the diagram's seven partitions of the subcubes yields only 168 distinct results.  This illustrates the difference between affine and projective spaces over the binary field GF(2).  In a related 2x2x2 cubic model of the affine 3-space over GF(2) whose "points" are individual subcubes, the group of eight translations is generated by interchanges of parallel 2x2x1 cube-slices.  This is clearly a subgroup of the group generated by permuting 1x1x2 cube-slices.  Such translations in the affine 3-space have no effect on the projective plane, since they leave each of the plane model's seven partitions– the "points" of the plane– invariant.)

To view the cubes model in a wider context, see Galois Geometry, Block Designs, and Finite-Geometry Models.


For another application of the points-as-partitions technique, see Latin-Square Geometry: Orthogonal Latin Squares as Skew Lines.

For more on the plane's symmetry group in another guise, see John Baez on Klein's Quartic Curve and the online book The Eightfold Way.  For more on the mathematics of cubic models, see Solomon's Cube.


For a large downloadable folder with many other related web pages, see Notes on Finite Geometry.

Tuesday, June 14, 2016

Model Kit

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 12:14 PM

The title refers to the previous post, which quotes a 
remark by a poetry critic in the current New Yorker .

Scholia —

From the post Structure and Sense of June 6, 2016 —



A set of 7 partitions of the 2x2x2 cube that is invariant under PSL(2, 7) acting on the 'knight' coordinatization

From the post Design Cube of July 23, 2015 —

Broken Symmetries  in  Diamond Space 

Monday, June 6, 2016

Structure and Sense

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 2:01 PM

"… the war of 70-some years ago
has already become something like the Trojan War
had been for the Homeric bards:
a major event in the mythic past
that gives structure and sense to our present reality."

— Justin E. H. Smith, a professor of philosophy at
     the University of Paris 7–Denis Diderot,
     in the New York Times  column "The Stone"
     (print edition published Sunday, June 5, 2016)

In memory of a British playwright who reportedly
died at 90 this morning —



A set of 7 partitions of the 2x2x2 cube that is invariant under PSL(2, 7) acting on the 'knight' coordinatization

Sunday, June 5, 2016

Sunday School: Seven Seals

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 7:00 AM

A set of 7 partitions of the 2x2x2 cube that is invariant under PSL(2, 7) acting on the 'knight' coordinatization

Click image for some background.

See also Standard Disclaimer.

Wednesday, January 16, 2008

Wednesday January 16, 2008

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , , , — m759 @ 12:25 PM
Knight Moves:
Geometry of the
Eightfold Cube

Actions of PSL(2, 7) on the eightfold cube

Click on the image for a larger version
and an expansion of some remarks
quoted here on Christmas 2005.

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