Log24

Tuesday, June 12, 2012

Meet Max Black (continued)

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 11:59 PM

Background— August 30, 2006—

The Seventh Symbol:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060830-Algebra.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

In the 2006 post, the above seventh symbol  110000 was
interpreted as the I Ching hexagram with topmost and
next-to-top lines solid, not broken— Hexagram 20, View .

In a different interpretation, 110000 is the binary for the decimal
number 48— representing the I Ching's Hexagram 48, The Well .

“… Max Black, the Cornell philosopher, and 
others have pointed out how ‘perhaps every science
must start with metaphor and end with algebra, and
perhaps without the metaphor there would never
have been any algebra’ ….”

Max BlackModels and Metaphors,
Cornell U. Press, 1962, page 242, as quoted
in Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors,
by Victor Witter Turner, Cornell U. Press,
paperback, 1975, page 25

The algebra is certainly clearer than either I Ching
metaphor, but is in some respects less interesting.

For a post that combines both the above I Ching
metaphors, View  and Well  , see Dec. 14, 2007.

In memory of scholar Elinor Ostrom,
who died today—

"Time for you to see the field."
Bagger Vance

Saturday, May 28, 2011

Meet Max Black (continued)

Filed under: General — m759 @ 12:00 PM

Max Black "notes, for instance, that in a study on wolves,
the implications of the metaphor 'Man is a wolf' will be
different than they might be in everyday discourse."

http://www.log24.com/log/pix11A/110528-BaldwinHopkins.jpg

Alec Baldwin and Anthony Hopkins
in "The Edge" (1997)

From an obituary in today's New York Times

"His daughter Jessamyn West said he was driven 'to understand everything.'

'He knew a million things — it didn’t matter:
worms, plumbing, literature. He could give you
a discourse. It seemed like he could never rest
until he had a sense of control over the things around him.'"

From "Meet Joe Black" (1998)

“Should I be afraid?”

“Not a man like you.”

Thursday, January 25, 2018

Beware of Analogical Extension

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 11:29 AM

"By an archetype  I mean a systematic repertoire
of ideas by means of which a given thinker describes,
by analogical extension , some domain to which
those ideas do not immediately and literally apply."

Max Black in Models and Metaphors 
    (Cornell, 1962, p. 241)

"Others … spoke of 'ultimate frames of reference' …."
Ibid.

A "frame of reference" for the concept  four quartets

A less reputable analogical extension  of the same
frame of reference

Madeleine L'Engle in A Swiftly Tilting Planet :

"… deep in concentration, bent over the model
they were building of a tesseract:
the square squared, and squared again…."

See also the phrase Galois tesseract .

Sunday, August 27, 2017

Extreme Aesthetic Distance

Filed under: General — m759 @ 2:45 AM

The previous post suggests an example of
extreme  aesthetic distance.

The word "mosaic" in Max Black

The same word in a very different  author —

Related historical remarks, for the Church of Synchronology

The above death reportedly occurred on Sunday, Sept. 13, 2015.
This journal at 11 AM on that date

Some background —

Saturday, January 14, 2017

1984: A Space Odyssey

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 2:40 PM

See Eightfold 1984 in this journal.

Related material —

"… the object sets up a kind of
 frame or space or field
 within which there can be epiphany."

"… Instead of an epiphany of being,
we have something like
an epiphany of interspaces."

— Charles Taylor, "Epiphanies of Modernism,"
Chapter 24 of Sources of the Self ,
Cambridge University Press, 1989

"Perhaps every science must start with metaphor
and end with algebra; and perhaps without the metaphor
there would never have been any algebra."

Max Black, Models and Metaphors ,
Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 1962

Epiphany 2017 —

Click to enlarge:

Tuesday, January 10, 2017

Analogical Extension Meets Analytic Continuation

Filed under: General — m759 @ 7:35 PM

From Models and Metaphors , by Max Black,
Cornell University Press, 1962 —

I do not recommend the work of Lewin, nor that of a later
science groupie, Keith Devlin

In September 2014, Devlin wrote an ignorant column about
a sort of bad mathematical joke based on a divergent infinite series.

He has now returned to the topic, this time writing more about
its proper mathematical background: analytic continuation .

Lewin is to Devlin as Lévi-Strauss is to Chomsky.
None of these four should be taken very seriously.

Max Black, however, should .

Thursday, April 14, 2016

Banach Revisited

Filed under: General — m759 @ 12:00 PM

A  1960  analogy by Max Black

"Those who see a model as a mere crutch
are like those who consider metaphor
a mere decoration or ornament."

This suggests a search for "Analogies between Analogies" —

“A mathematician is a person who can find analogies
between theorems; a better mathematician is one who
can see analogies between proofs and the best
mathematician can notice analogies between theories.
One can imagine that the ultimate mathematician is one
who can see analogies between analogies.”

— Stefan Banach, according to MacTutor.

Wednesday, April 13, 2016

Black List

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 1:00 PM

A search for "Max Black" in this journal yields some images
from a post of August 30, 2006 . . .

A circular I Ching

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060830-SeventhSymbol.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

"Jackson has identified the seventh symbol."
— Stargate

The "Jackson" above is played by the young James Spader,
who in an older version currently stars in "The Blacklist."

"… the memorable models of science are 'speculative instruments,'
to borrow I. A. Richards' happy title. They, too, bring about a wedding
of disparate subjects, by a distinctive operation of transfer of the
implications  of relatively well-organized cognitive fields. And as with
other weddings, their outcomes are unpredictable."

Max Black in Models and Metaphors , Cornell U. Press, 1962

A Motive for Metaphor

Filed under: General — m759 @ 12:00 PM

From 'Models and Metaphors' by Max Black, Cornell U. Press 1962

Monday, September 1, 2014

Mathematics, Not Theology

Filed under: General — m759 @ 5:00 PM

(Continued)

“A set having three members is a single thing
wholly constituted by its members but distinct from them.
After this, the theological doctrine of the Trinity as
‘three in one’ should be child’s play.”

— Max BlackCaveats and Critiques: Philosophical Essays
in Language, Logic, and Art
 , Cornell U. Press, 1975

IMAGE- The Trinity of Max Black (a 3-set, with its eight subsets arranged in a Hasse diagram that is also a cube)

“There is  such a thing as a three-set.”
— Saying adapted from a novel by Madeleine L’Engle

Tuesday, August 20, 2013

Conversations with an Empty Chair

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 9:00 PM

(Continued from 4 AM Sunday, Sept. 10, 2006 —
Meet Max Black .)

In memory of office chair designer Charles Pollock,
who reportedly died today at 83.

An image from the 2006 Meet Max Black  empty-chair post
appears also in today's previous post, The 20 .

The conversation of this  post's title (see The 20 ) —

Tuesday, June 26, 2012

Looking Deeply

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 3:48 PM

Last night's post on The Trinity of Max Black  and the use of
the term "eightfold" by the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute
at Berkeley suggest a review of an image from Sept. 22, 2011

IMAGE- Eightfold cube with detail of triskelion structure

The triskele  detail above echoes a Buddhist symbol found,
for instance, on the Internet in an ad for meditation supplies—

Related remarks

http://www.spencerart.ku.edu/about/dialogue/fdpt.shtml

Mary Dusenbury (Radcliffe '64)—

"… I think a textile, like any work of art, holds a tremendous amount of information— technical, material, historical, social, philosophical— but beyond that, many works of art are very beautiful and they speak to us on many layers— our intellect, our heart, our emotions. I've been going to museums since I was a very small child, thinking about what I saw, and going back to discover new things, to see pieces that spoke very deeply to me, to look at them again, and to find more and more meaning relevant to me in different ways and at different times of my life. …

… I think I would suggest to people that first of all they just look. Linger by pieces they find intriguing and beautiful, and look deeply. Then, if something interests them, we have tried to put a little information around the galleries to give a bit of history, a bit of context, for each piece. But the most important is just to look very deeply."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikaya_Buddhism

According to Robert Thurman, the term "Nikāya Buddhism" was coined by Professor Masatoshi Nagatomi of Harvard University, as a way to avoid the usage of the term Hinayana.[12] "Nikaya Buddhism" is thus an attempt to find a more neutral way of referring to Buddhists who follow one of the early Buddhist schools, and their practice.

12. The Emptiness That is Compassion:
An Essay on Buddhist Ethics, Robert A. F. Thurman, 1980
[Religious Traditions , Vol. 4 No. 2, Oct.-Nov. 1981, pp. 11-34]

http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.2:1:6.pali

Nikāya [Sk. nikāya, ni+kāya]
collection ("body") assemblage, class, group

http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/नि

Sanskrit etymology for नि (ni)

From Proto-Indo-European *ni …

Prefix

नि (ni)

  • down
  • back
  • in, into

http://www.rigpawiki.org/index.php?title=Kaya

Kaya (Skt. kāya སྐུ་, Tib. ku Wyl. sku ) —
the Sanskrit word kaya literally means ‘body’
but can also signify dimension, field or basis.

སྐུ། (Wyl. sku ) n. Pron.: ku

structure, existentiality, founding stratum ▷HVG KBEU

gestalt ▷HVG LD

Note that The Trinity of Max Black  is a picture of  a set
i.e., of an "assemblage, class, group."

Note also the reference above to the word "gestalt."

"Was ist Raum, wie können wir ihn
erfassen und gestalten?"

Walter Gropius

Bright Black

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 12:12 AM

“‘In the dictionary next to [the] word “bright,” you should see Paula’s picture,’ he said. ‘She was super smart, with a sparkling wit. … She had a beautiful sense of style and color.'”

— Elinor J. Brecher in The Miami Herald  on June 8, quoting Palm Beach Post writer John Lantigua on the late art historian Paula Hays Harper

This  journal on the date of her death—

IMAGE- The Trinity of Max Black (a 3-set, with its eight subsets arranged in a Hasse diagram that is also a cube)

For some simpleminded commentary, see László Lovász on the cube space.

Some less simpleminded commentary—

Was ist Raum, wie können wir ihn
erfassen und gestalten?”

Walter Gropius,

The Theory and
Organization of the
Bauhaus
  (1923)

Sunday, June 3, 2012

Child’s Play

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 2:56 PM

(Continued)

“A set having three members is a single thing
wholly constituted by its members but distinct from them.
After this, the theological doctrine of the Trinity as
‘three in one’ should be child’s play.”

Max BlackCaveats and Critiques: Philosophical Essays
in Language, Logic, and Art
, Cornell U. Press, 1975

IMAGE- The Trinity of Max Black (a 3-set, with its eight subsets arranged in a Hasse diagram that is also a cube)

Related material—

The Trinity Cube

IMAGE- The Trinity Cube (three interpenetrating planes that split the eightfold cube into its eight subcubes)

Saturday, June 2, 2012

High Society

Filed under: General — m759 @ 12:00 PM

In memory of Sir Andrew Huxley, OM, who died on May 30, 2012

C. P. Snow on G. H. Hardy at Trinity College, Cambridge

He played his games and indulged his eccentricities.
He was living in some of the best intellectual company
in the world— G. E. Moore, Whitehead, Bertrand Russell,
Trevelyan, the high Trinity society  which was shortly to
find its artistic complement in Bloomsbury. (Hardy himself
had links with Bloomsbury, both of personal friendship
and of sympathy.)

See also "Max Black" + Trinity  in this journal.

Saturday, July 10, 2010

Child’s Play

Filed under: General — m759 @ 6:00 PM

Image-- 'Aion pais esti paizon....'

… twó flocks, twó folds—black, white; ' right, wrong; reckon but, reck but, mind
But thése two; wáre of a wórld where bút these ' twó tell, each off the óther….

— "Spelt from Sibyl's Leaves," by Gerard Manley Hopkins

http://www.log24.com/log/pix10A/100710-Nabokov-Black.GIF

Related material:

Max Black — "Beginners are taught that a set having three members is a single thing, wholly constituted by its members but distinct from them. After this, the theological doctrine of the Trinity as 'three in one' should be child's play." ("The Elusiveness of Sets," Review of Metaphysics, June 1971, p. 615– as quoted by Bill Vallicella)


 Edward Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Chapter XXI

Gibbon, discussing the theology of the Trinity, defines perichoresis as

“… the internal connection and spiritual penetration which indissolubly unites the divine persons59 ….

59 … The perichoresis  or ‘circumincessio,’ is perhaps the deepest and darkest corner of the whole theological abyss.”


 ”Whoever fights monsters should see to it that in the process he does not become a monster.  And when you look long into an abyss, the abyss also looks into you.”

– Friedrich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil, section 146, translated by Walter Kaufmann


Saturday, December 23, 2006

Saturday December 23, 2006

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 9:00 AM
Black Mark

Bernard Holland in The New York Times on Monday, May 20, 1996:

“Philosophers ponder the idea of identity: what it is to give something a name on Monday and have it respond to that name on Friday….”

Log24 on Monday,
Dec. 18, 2006:

“I did a column in
Scientific American
on minimal art, and
I reproduced one of
Ed Rinehart’s [sic]
black paintings.”

Martin Gardner (pdf)

“… the entire profession
has received a very public
and very bad black mark.”

Joan S. Birman (pdf)

Lottery on Friday,
Dec. 22, 2006:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06B/061222-PAlottery.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

5/04
, 2005:

Analysis of the structure
of a 2x2x2 cube

The Eightfold Cube

via trinities of
projective points
in a Fano plane.

7/15, 2005:

“Art history was very personal
through the eyes of Ad Reinhardt.”

  — Robert Morris,
Smithsonian Archives
of American Art

Also on 7/15, 2005,
a quotation on Usenet:

“A set having three members is a
single thing wholly constituted by
its members but distinct from them.
After this, the theological doctrine
of the Trinity as ‘three in one’
should be child’s play.”

Max Black,
Caveats and Critiques:
Philosophical Essays in
Language, Logic, and Art

Sunday, September 10, 2006

Sunday September 10, 2006

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 4:00 AM

And the
"
Meet Max Black"
Award goes to…

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060910-Obits.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

"For the Aeron and other designs,
Mr. Stumpf won this year’s
National Design Award
in Product Design
,
which is to be presented
posthumously on Oct. 18
by the Cooper-Hewitt
National Design Museum
in Manhattan."

— Today's New York Times

Stumpf died on August 30,
the date of the Log24 entry
"The Seventh Symbol."

Related material:

From
Geometry of the I Ching,
a chessboard:

I Ching chessboard (original 1989 arrangement)

From the
 National Design Museum:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060910-DesignAwards.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

 From Log24 on the
date of Stumpf's death,

The Seventh Symbol:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060910-Box121.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Pictorial version of
Hexagram 20,
Contemplation (View)

See also
Fearful Symmetry
and
Symmetry Framed.

Wednesday, August 30, 2006

Wednesday August 30, 2006

Filed under: General — m759 @ 7:00 PM

Seven

“Research & Ideas” memo from Harvard Business School dated April 17, 2006:

“The word experience comes from the Latin words ex pericolo, which mean ‘from danger.'”

— Etymology by Professor Joseph Badaracco of Harvard University.  Badaracco gives no evidence for his dubious claim.

Related (if only temporally):
Easter Monday, April 17, 2006.

experience

1377, from O.Fr. experience, from L. experientia “knowledge gained by repeated trials,” from experientem (nom. experiens), prp. of experiri “to try, test,” from ex- “out of” + peritus “experienced, tested.” The v. (1533) first meant “to test, try;” sense of “feel, undergo” first recorded 1588.

      — Online Etymology Dictionary

The title of this entry refers to the time it was posted. Related references to seven: April 7, 2003, and today’s previous entry.

See also an entry from 2/29, 2004
(Leap Day and Oscar Night):

Vita Brevis

“In many ways, the arts are the highest achievements of man.”

— Harvard President
   Lawrence H. Summers,
   Feb. 26, 2004 

”We intensively train children in the Arts and ritual because deep down we know that these are the only things that really MATTER. This is what we must share first with the young, in case they DIE.”

— Lucy Ellmann, Dot in the Universe, quoted in today’s [2/29/04] New York Times

Harvard persons from parts of the university that are more scholarly than the Business School may sneer at the above-quoted Online Etymology Dictionary.  They can consult the following:

On “experience”

From J.L. Austin, From Ritual to Theatre: The Human Seriousness of Play:

“Scholars, such as Julius Pokorny (Indogermanisches Etymolgisches Worterbuch, 1959), trace ‘experience’ right back to hypothetical Indo-European base or root *per-, ‘to attempt, venture, risk,’ whence the Greek peira,”experience,” the source of our word ’empirical.’ It is also the verbal root which derives the Germanic *feraz, giving rise to Old English faer, “danger, sudden calamity,” whence Modern English ‘fear.’ Already, we see the ‘cognitive’ directions taken by * per-, through the Greek route, and affective ones, through the Germanic — which would have interested Dilthey, one may be sure! But more directly ‘experience’ derives, via Middle English and Old French, from the Latin experientia, denoting ‘trial, proof, experiment,’ itself generated from experiens, the present participle of experiri, ‘to try, test,’ from from ex-, ‘out’ + base per as in peritus, ‘experienced,’ ‘having learned by trying.’ The suffixed extended form of *per is peri-tlo-, whence the Latin periclum, periculum, “trial, danger, peril. Once more, we find experience linked with risk, straining towards ‘drama,’ crisis, rather than bland cognitive learning!”

“… Finally, ‘experiment,’ like ‘experience,’ is derived from Latin experiri “to try or test.” If we put these various senses together we have a ‘laminated’ semantic system focused on ‘experience,’ which portrays it as a journey, a test (of self, of suppositions about others), a ritual passage, an exposure to peril or risk, a source of fear. By means of experience, we ‘fare’ ‘fearfully’ through ‘perils,’ taking ‘experimental’ steps. …” (17-18)

The above is taken from an anonymous weblog entry.  The author of the entry identified the source as From Ritual to Theatre: The Human Seriousness of Play.  The author of the entry falsely stated that the author of this book was J. L. Austin.  In fact, the book was written by Victor Turner, apparently the same philosophical sociologist whom we encountered in the previous entry and in the Log24 entry for the recent feast of St. Max Black.  Turner may have been quoting Austin; pages from the book are not available online.  Another author, however, says the quotation is by Turner himself.  See Rena Fraden’s Imagining Medea, pp. 218-219.

Today’s previous entry is a sort of “ritual passage” for a Nobel Prize winner. For a ritual passage more directly related to Professor Badaracco, see the Brookline TAB obituary of his 23-year-old daughter, who died on Monday, August 21, 2006.  According to today’s online Harvard Crimson, “she was walking along Hammond Street in Newton [Mass.] when an 84-year-old driver jumped the curb and struck her.”

From her Brookline TAB obituary of Thursday, Aug. 24, 2006:

“Funeral services will be held Friday [Aug. 25, 2006] at 10 a.m. at St. Mary’s of the Assumption Church, at 67 Harvard St.

The family asks that in lieu of flowers, donations be made to the Centro Romero Community Center in Chicago: 6216 N. Clark St., Chicago, IL 60660.”

Wednesday August 30, 2006

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 10:07 AM
The Seventh Symbol:

A Multicultural Farewell

to a winner of the
Nobel Prize for Literature,
the Egyptian author of
The Seventh Heaven:
Supernatural Stories
 —

The image “http://www.log24.com/theory/images/GF64-63cycleA495.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060830-SeventhSymbol.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

"Jackson has identified
the seventh symbol."
Stargate

Other versions of
the seventh symbol —

Chinese version:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060830-hexagram20.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

pictorial version:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060830-Box.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

algebraic version:

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix06A/060830-Algebra.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

"… Max Black, the Cornell philosopher, and others have pointed out how 'perhaps every science must start with metaphor and end with algebra, and perhaps without the metaphor there would never have been any algebra' …."

Max Black, Models and Metaphors, Cornell U. Press, 1962, page 242, as quoted in Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors, by Victor Witter Turner, Cornell U. Press, paperback, 1975, page 25

Sunday, August 27, 2006

Sunday August 27, 2006

Filed under: General — m759 @ 4:00 PM
Today’s Saint:

Philosopher Max Black,
who died on this date
in 1988

“… Max Black, the Cornell philosopher, and others have pointed out how ‘perhaps every science must start with metaphor and end with algebra, and perhaps without the metaphor there would never have been any algebra’ ….”

Max Black, Models and Metaphors, Cornell U. Press, 1962, page 242, as quoted in Dramas, Fields, and Metaphors, by Victor Witter Turner, Cornell U. Press, paperback, 1975, page 25

Saturday, June 4, 2005

Saturday June 4, 2005

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 7:00 PM
  Drama of the Diagonal
  
   The 4×4 Square:
  French Perspectives

Earendil_Silmarils:
The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix05A/050604-Fuite1.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.
  
   Les Anamorphoses:
 
   The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix05A/050604-DesertSquare.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.
 
  “Pour construire un dessin en perspective,
   le peintre trace sur sa toile des repères:
   la ligne d’horizon (1),
   le point de fuite principal (2)
   où se rencontre les lignes de fuite (3)
   et le point de fuite des diagonales (4).”
   _______________________________
  
  Serge Mehl,
   Perspective &
  Géométrie Projective:
  
   “… la géométrie projective était souvent
   synonyme de géométrie supérieure.
   Elle s’opposait à la géométrie
   euclidienne: élémentaire
  
  La géométrie projective, certes supérieure
   car assez ardue, permet d’établir
   de façon élégante des résultats de
   la géométrie élémentaire.”
  
  Similarly…
  
  Finite projective geometry
  (in particular, Galois geometry)
   is certainly superior to
   the elementary geometry of
  quilt-pattern symmetry
  and allows us to establish
   de façon élégante
   some results of that
   elementary geometry.
  
  Other Related Material…
  
   from algebra rather than
   geometry, and from a German
   rather than from the French:  

This is the relativity problem:
to fix objectively a class of
equivalent coordinatizations
and to ascertain
the group of transformations S
mediating between them.”
— Hermann Weyl,
The Classical Groups,
Princeton U. Press, 1946

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix05/050124-galois12s.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Evariste Galois

 Weyl also says that the profound branch
of mathematics known as Galois theory

   “… is nothing else but the
   relativity theory for the set Sigma,
   a set which, by its discrete and
    finite character, is conceptually
   so much simpler than the
   infinite set of points in space
   or space-time dealt with
   by ordinary relativity theory.”
  — Weyl, Symmetry,
   Princeton U. Press, 1952
  
   Metaphor and Algebra…  

“Perhaps every science must
start with metaphor
and end with algebra;
and perhaps without metaphor
there would never have been
any algebra.” 

   — attributed, in varying forms, to
   Max Black, Models and Metaphors, 1962

For metaphor and
algebra combined, see  

  “Symmetry invariance
  in a diamond ring,”

  A.M.S. abstract 79T-A37,
Notices of the
American Mathematical Society,
February 1979, pages A-193, 194 —
the original version of the 4×4 case
of the diamond theorem.

  
More on Max Black

“When approaching unfamiliar territory, we often, as observed earlier, try to describe or frame the novel situation using metaphors based on relations perceived in a familiar domain, and by using our powers of association, and our ability to exploit the structural similarity, we go on to conjecture new features for consideration, often not noticed at the outset. The metaphor works, according to Max Black, by transferring the associated ideas and implications of the secondary to the primary system, and by selecting, emphasising and suppressing features of the primary in such a way that new slants on it are illuminated.”

— Paul Thompson, University College, Oxford,
    The Nature and Role of Intuition
     in Mathematical Epistemology

  A New Slant…  

That intuition, metaphor (i.e., analogy), and association may lead us astray is well known.  The examples of French perspective above show what might happen if someone ignorant of finite geometry were to associate the phrase “4×4 square” with the phrase “projective geometry.”  The results are ridiculously inappropriate, but at least the second example does, literally, illuminate “new slants”– i.e., diagonals– within the perspective drawing of the 4×4 square.

Similarly, analogy led the ancient Greeks to believe that the diagonal of a square is commensurate with the side… until someone gave them a new slant on the subject.

Monday, January 24, 2005

Monday January 24, 2005

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 2:45 PM

Old School Tie

From a review of A Beautiful Mind:

"We are introduced to John Nash, fuddling flat-footed about the Princeton courtyard, uninterested in his classmates' yammering about their various accolades. One chap has a rather unfortunate sense of style, but rather than tritely insult him, Nash holds a patterned glass to the sun, [director Ron] Howard shows us refracted patterns of light that take shape in a punch bowl, which Nash then displaces onto the neckwear, replying, 'There must be a formula for how ugly your tie is.' "

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix05/050124-Tie.gif” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

"Three readings of diamond and box
have been extremely influential."

Draft of
Computing with Modal Logics
(pdf), by Carlos Areces
and Maarten de Rijke

"Algebra in general is particularly suited for structuring and abstracting. Here, structure is imposed via symmetries and dualities, for instance in terms of Galois connections….

… diamonds and boxes are upper and lower adjoints of Galois connections…."

— "Modal Kleene Algebra
and Applications: A Survey"
(pdf), by Jules Desharnais,
Bernhard Möller, and
Georg Struth, March 2004
 
See also
Galois Correspondence

The image “http://www.log24.com/log/pix05/050124-galois12s.jpg” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

Evariste Galois

and Log24.net, May 20, 2004:

"Perhaps every science must
start with metaphor
and end with algebra;
and perhaps without metaphor
there would never have been
any algebra."

— attributed, in varying forms
(1, 2, 3), to Max Black,
Models and Metaphors, 1962

For metaphor and
algebra combined, see

"Symmetry invariance
in a diamond ring,"

A.M.S. abstract 79T-A37,
Notices of the Amer. Math. Soc.,
February 1979, pages A-193, 194 —
the original version of the 4×4 case
of the diamond theorem.

Thursday, May 20, 2004

Thursday May 20, 2004

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 7:00 AM

Parable

“A comparison or analogy. The word is simply a transliteration of the Greek word: parabolé (literally: ‘what is thrown beside’ or ‘juxtaposed’), a term used to designate the geometric application we call a ‘parabola.’….  The basic parables are extended similes or metaphors.”

http://religion.rutgers.edu/nt/
    primer/parable.html

“If one style of thought stands out as the most potent explanation of genius, it is the ability to make juxtapositions that elude mere mortals.  Call it a facility with metaphor, the ability to connect the unconnected, to see relationships to which others are blind.”

Sharon Begley, “The Puzzle of Genius,” Newsweek magazine, June 28, 1993, p. 50

“The poet sets one metaphor against another and hopes that the sparks set off by the juxtaposition will ignite something in the mind as well. Hopkins’ poem ‘Pied Beauty’ has to do with ‘creation.’ “

Speaking in Parables, Ch. 2, by Sallie McFague

“The Act of Creation is, I believe, a more truly creative work than any of Koestler’s novels….  According to him, the creative faculty in whatever form is owing to a circumstance which he calls ‘bisociation.’ And we recognize this intuitively whenever we laugh at a joke, are dazzled by a fine metaphor, are astonished and excited by a unification of styles, or ‘see,’ for the first time, the possibility of a significant theoretical breakthrough in a scientific inquiry. In short, one touch of genius—or bisociation—makes the whole world kin. Or so Koestler believes.”

— Henry David Aiken, The Metaphysics of Arthur Koestler, New York Review of Books, Dec. 17, 1964

For further details, see

Speaking in Parables:
A Study in Metaphor and Theology

by Sallie McFague

Fortress Press, Philadelphia, 1975

Introduction
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7

“Perhaps every science must start with metaphor and end with algebra; and perhaps without metaphor there would never have been any algebra.”

— attributed, in varying forms (1, 2, 3), to Max Black, Models and Metaphors, 1962

For metaphor and algebra combined, see

“Symmetry invariance in a diamond ring,” A.M.S. abstract 79T-A37, Notices of the Amer. Math. Soc., February 1979, pages A-193, 194 — the original version of the 4×4 case of the diamond theorem.

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