Underlying Structure of the Design —
Schoolgirl Problem —
Anonymous remarks on the schoolgirl problem at Wikipedia —
"This solution has a geometric interpretation in connection with
Galois geometry and PG(3,2). Take a tetrahedron and label its
vertices as 0001, 0010, 0100 and 1000. Label its six edge centers
as the XOR of the vertices of that edge. Label the four face centers
as the XOR of the three vertices of that face, and the body center
gets the label 1111. Then the 35 triads of the XOR solution correspond
exactly to the 35 lines of PG(3,2). Each day corresponds to a spread
and each week to a packing."
See also Polster + Tetrahedron in this journal.
There is a different "geometric interpretation in connection with
Galois geometry and PG(3,2)" that uses a square model rather
than a tetrahedral model. The square model of PG(3,2) last
appeared in the schoolgirlproblem article on Feb. 11, 2017, just
before a revision that removed it.
A Warren, Pennsylvania, newspaper article from May 12, 2018,
“A terrorist among them,” quotes Ann Creal of Warren on
schooldays of the late 1950’s and on a German exchange student,
Gudrun Ensslin, who later became famous for her violent political
activities:
“She said Ensslin dated while here (the man
she identified as Ensslin’s date told the Times Observer
he had no recollection of her).”
I am the man that was identified as Ensslin’s date, and I still
have no recollection of her.
Ann Creal is the former Ann Fuellhart, who was a college freshman
in the fall of 1959, when I was a high school senior —
Ann Creal apparently confused me with Scott Mohr, who
graduated from Warren High School in 1958. See the Log24
posts Crux and Doppelgänger.
Compare and contrast the recent films
"The Diary of a Teenage Girl" and "Strangerland."
(This post was suggested by yesterday's
"How Deep the Rabbit Hole Goes.")
and versions of "Both Sides Now"
See a New York Times version of "Both Sides Now."
I prefer a version by Umberto Eco.
Related material for storytellers and the Church of Synchronology —
This journal on the date of the above shooting script, 03/19/15.
Or: Ten Years and a Day
In memory of film director Robert Wise,
who died ten years ago yesterday.
A search in this journal for "Schoolgirl" ends with a post
from Sept. 10, 2002, The Sound of Hanging Rock.
See as well a Log24 search for "Strangerland"
(a 2015 film about a search for a schoolgirl) and
a Log24 search for "Weaving."
Related mathematics: Symplectic.
Some related images (click to enlarge) —
But first, a word from our sponsa* …
Sir Laurence Olivier in "Term of Trial" (1962),
a film starring Sarah Miles as a schoolgirl —
* Bride in Latin. See also "bride's chair,"
a phrase from mathematical pedagogy.
The 15 points of the finite projective 3space PG(3,2)
arranged in tetrahedral form:
The letter labels, but not the tetrahedral form,
are from The Axioms of Projective Geometry , by
Alfred North Whitehead (Cambridge U. Press, 1906).
The above space PG(3,2), because of its close association with
Kirkman's schoolgirl problem, might be called "schoolgirl space."
Screen Rant on July 31, 2019:
A Google Search sidebar this morning:
Apocalypse Soon! —
The exercise in the previous post was suggested by a passage
purporting to "use standard block design theory" that was written
by some anonymous author at Wikipedia on March 1, 2019:
Here "rm OR" apparently means "remove original research."
Before the March 1 revision . . .
The "original research" objected to and removed was the paragraph
beginning "To explain this further." That paragraph was put into the
article earlier on Feb. 28 by yet another anonymous author (not by me).
An account of my own (1976 and later) original research on this subject
is pictured below, in a note from Feb. 20, 1986 —
The Square "Inscape" Model of
the Generalized Quadrangle W(2)
Click image to enlarge.
* The title refers to the role of PG (3,2) in Kirkman's schoolgirl problem.
For some backstory, see my post Anticommuting Dirac Matrices as Skew Lines
and, more generally, posts tagged Dirac and Geometry.
The dies natalis of St. Buddy Holly was Feb. 3, 1959.
This year on Feb. 3, a geometric illustration of the wellknown
schoolgirl problem was added to a brandnew Wikipedia article
on the finite geometry PG(3,2).
The last page of a novel published on Sept. 2, 2014 —
Related material —
The 2017 film Gifted presents a different approach to the NavierStokes
problem.
The figure below perhaps represents the above novel 's Millennium Prize
winner reacting, in the afterlife, to the film 's approach in Gifted .
Bustle online magazine last April —
Gifted ’s Millennium Prize Problems
Are Real & They Will Hurt Your Brain
By JOHNNY BRAYSON Apr 11 2017
See also other news from the above Bustle date — April 11, 2017.
A Feb. 12 note in the "talk" section of the Wikipedia article
"Kirkman's schoolgirl problem" —
The illustration above was replaced by a new section in the article,
titled "Galois geometry."
The new section improves the article by giving it greater depth.
For related material, see Conwell Heptads in this journal
(or, more generally, Conwell) and a 1985 note citing Conwell's work.
Despite the blocking of Doodles on my Google Search
screen, some messages get through.
Today, for instance —
"Your idea just might change the world.
Enter Google Science Fair 2014"
Clicking the link yields a page with the following image—
Clearly there is a problem here analogous to
the squaretriangle coordinatization problem,
but with the 4×6 rectangle of the R. T. Curtis
Miracle Octad Generator playing the role of
the square.
I once studied this 24trianglehexagon
coordinatization problem, but was unable to
obtain any results of interest. Perhaps
someone else will have better luck.
* For a rather different use of this word,
see Hermann Weyl in the Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Screen Rant on July 31, 2019 —
The above space PG(3,2), because of its close association with
Kirkman's schoolgirl problem, might be called "schoolgirl space."
See as well a Log24 post from the above Screen Rant date —
The above images were suggested in part by the birthdays
on Sept. 21, 2011, of Bill Murray and Stephen King.
More seriously, also in this journal on that date, from a post
titled Symmetric Generation —
Sunday, October 29, 2017
File System… Unlocked

See as well Chloë Grace Moretz portraying a schoolgirl problem.
Schoolgirl Problem
"Buy this image" . . . Or not.
Related material from the date of the above photo —
For related drama, see "Child's Play" in this journal.
Related material — See Gifted in this journal.
See as well Tulips.
Yesterday was the International Day of the Girl Child . . .
A related archived Wikipedia article on Kirkman's schoolgirl problem :
See also the previous post— "IPFS Version"— and https://ipfs.io/.
The title refers to that of the previous post, "The Imaginarium."
In memory of a translator who reportedly died on May 22, 2017,
a passage quoted here on that date —
Related material — A paragraph added on March 15, 2017,
to the Wikipedia article on Galois geometry —
George Conwell gave an early demonstration of Galois geometry in 1910 when he characterized a solution of Kirkman's schoolgirl problem as a partition of sets of skew lines in PG(3,2), the threedimensional projective geometry over the Galois field GF(2).^{[3]} Similar to methods of line geometry in space over a field of characteristic 0, Conwell used Plücker coordinates in PG(5,2) and identified the points representing lines in PG(3,2) as those on the Klein quadric. — User Rgdboer 
Principles before Personalities — AA Saying .
Principles —
See Schoolgirl Problem in Wikipedia.
Personalities —
See Alexandra Alter in the May 26 online New York Times :
"With the proliferation of 'girl' titles,
there are signs that the trend may have peaked;
it already seems ripe for parody."
Update of 12:40 PM ET on Wednesday, June 1, 2016 —
A note for the Church of Synchronology …
See a post from this journal on the date of the Alter piece, May 26:
(Click image for the rest of the post .)
(A sequel to the previous post, Perfect Number)
Since antiquity, six has been known as
"the smallest perfect number." The word "perfect"
here means that a number is the sum of its
proper divisors — in the case of six: 1, 2, and 3.
The properties of a sixelement set (a "6set")
divided into three 2sets and divided into two 3sets
are those of what Burkard Polster, using the same
adjective in a different sense, has called
"the smallest perfect universe" — PG(3,2), the projective
3dimensional space over the 2element Galois field.
A Google search for the phrase "smallest perfect universe"
suggests a turnaround in meaning , if not in finance,
that might please Yahoo CEO Marissa Mayer on her birthday —
The semantic turnaround here in the meaning of "perfect"
is accompanied by a model turnaround in the picture of PG(3,2) as
Polster's tetrahedral model is replaced by Cullinane's square model.
Further background from the previous post —
See also Kirkman's Schoolgirl Problem.
arXiv.org > quantph > arXiv:1905.06914 Quantum Physics Placing Kirkman's Schoolgirls and Quantum Spin Pairs on the Fano Plane: A Rainbow of Four Primary Colors, A Harmony of Fifteen Tones J. P. Marceaux, A. R. P. Rau (Submitted on 14 May 2019) A recreational problem from nearly two centuries ago has featured prominently in recent times in the mathematics of designs, codes, and signal processing. The number 15 that is central to the problem coincidentally features in areas of physics, especially in today's field of quantum information, as the number of basic operators of two quantum spins ("qubits"). This affords a 1:1 correspondence that we exploit to use the wellknown Pauli spin or LieClifford algebra of those fifteen operators to provide specific constructions as posed in the recreational problem. An algorithm is set up that, working with four basic objects, generates alternative solutions or designs. The choice of four base colors or four basic chords can thus lead to color diagrams or acoustic patterns that correspond to realizations of each design. The Fano Plane of finite projective geometry involving seven points and lines and the tetrahedral threedimensional simplex of 15 points are key objects that feature in this study. Comments:16 pages, 10 figures Subjects:Quantum Physics (quantph) Cite as:arXiv:1905.06914 [quantph] (or arXiv:1905.06914v1 [quantph] for this version) Submission history
From: A. R. P. Rau [view email] 
See also other posts tagged Tetrahedron vs. Square.
From The Boston Globe yesterday evening —
" Ms. Adams 'had this quiet intelligence that made you feel like
she understood you and she loved you. She was a true friend —
a true generous, generous friend. This is the kind of person
you keep in your life,' Birdseye added.
'And she had such a great sense of humor,' Birdseye said.
“She would always have the last laugh. She wasn’t always
the loudest, but she was always the funniest, and in the
smartest way.' "
"Ms. Adams, who lived in Waltham, was 55 when she died April 9 . . . ."
See as well April 9 in the post Math Death and a post from April 8,
also now tagged "Berlekamp's Game" — Horses of a Dream.
"When logic and proportion have fallen sloppy dead
And the white knight is talking backwards . . . ."
— Grace Slick in a song from yesterday's post "When the Men"
"I need a photo opportunity . . ." — Paul Simon
Logo from the above webpage —
See also the similar structure of the eightfold cube, and …
Related dialogue from the new film "Unlocked" —
1057
01:31:59,926 –> 01:32:01,301
Nice to have you back, Alice.
1058
01:32:04,009 –> 01:32:05,467
Don't be a stranger.
Landon T. Clay, founder of the Clay Mathematics Institute,
reportedly died on Saturday, July 29, 2017.
See related Log24 posts, now tagged Prize Problem,
from the date of Clay's death and the day before.
Update of 9 PM ET on August 4, 2017 —
Other mathematics discussed here on the date of Clay's death —
MSRI Program. Here MSRI is pronounced "Misery."
Update of 9:45 PM ET on August 4, 2017 —
From a novel featuring the NavierStokes problem —
A search for "Creed" in this journal yields
a different sort of Shiva —
For further reviews, click on the Penguin below.
In memory of a Disney "imagineer" who reportedly died yesterday.
From the opening scene of a 2017 film, "Gifted":
Frank calls his niece Mary to breakfast on the morning she is
to enter first grade. She is dressed, for the first time, for school —
 Hey! Come on. Let's move!  No!  Let me see.  No.  Come on, I made you special breakfast.  You can't cook.  Hey, Mary, open up. (She opens her door and walks out.)  You look beautiful.  I look like a Disney character. Where's the special?  What?  You said you made me special breakfast. Read more: http://www.springfieldspringfield.co.uk/ movie_script.php?movie=gifted 
Click image to enlarge.
The above 35 projective lines, within a 4×4 array —
The above 15 projective planes, within a 4×4 array (in white) —
* See Galois Tesseract in this journal.
Space —
Space structure —
From Gotay and Isenberg, “The Symplectization of Science,”
Gazette des Mathématiciens 54, 5979 (1992):
“… what is the origin of the unusual name ‘symplectic’? ….
Its mathematical usage is due to Hermann Weyl who,
in an effort to avoid a certain semantic confusion, renamed
the then obscure ‘line complex group’ the ‘symplectic group.’
… the adjective ‘symplectic’ means ‘plaited together’ or ‘woven.’
This is wonderfully apt….”
The above symplectic figure appears in remarks on
the diamondtheorem correlation in the webpage
Rosenhain and Göpel Tetrads in PG(3,2).
Space shuttle —
Related ethnic remarks —
… As opposed to Michael Larsen —
Funny, you don't look Danish.
From a post of July 24, 2011 —
A review —
“The story, involving the Knights Templar, the Vatican, sunken treasure,
the fate of Christianity and a decoding device that looks as if it came out of
a really big box of medieval Cracker Jack, is the latest attempt to combine
Indiana Jones derringdo with ‘Da Vinci Code’ mysticism.”
A feeble attempt at a purely mathematical "decoding device"
from this journal earlier this month —
For some background, see a question by John Baez at Math Overflow
on Aug. 20, 2015.
The nonexistence of a 24cycle in the large Mathieu group
might discourage anyone hoping for deep new insights from
the above figure.
See Marston Conder's "Symmetric Genus of the Mathieu Groups" —
The latest Visual Insight post at the American Mathematical
Society website discusses group actions on the McGee graph,
pictured as 24 points arranged in a circle that are connected
by 36 symmetrically arranged edges.
Wikipedia remarks that …
"The automorphism group of the McGee graph
is of order 32 and doesn't act transitively upon
its vertices: there are two vertex orbits of lengths
8 and 16."
The partition into 8 and 16 points suggests, for those familiar
with the Miracle Octad Generator and the Mathieu group M_{24},
the following exercise:
Arrange the 24 points of the projective line
over GF(23) in a circle in the natural cyclic order
( ∞, 1, 2, 3, … , 22, 0 ). Can the McGee graph be
modeled by constructing edges in any natural way?
In other words, if the above set of edges has no
"natural" connection with the 24 points of the
projective line over GF(23), does some other
set of edges in an isomorphic McGee graph
have such a connection?
Update of 9:20 PM ET Sept. 20, 2015:
Backstory: A related question by John Baez
at Math Overflow on August 20.
… was added to the Wikipedia article Finite geometry.
(Shown above is a slightly newer image, changed to reflect
the Wikipedia article's remarks on the schoolgirl problem.)
Anyone tackling the Raumproblem described here
on Feb. 21, 2014 should know the history of coordinatizations
of the 4×6 Miracle Octad Generator (MOG) array by R. T. Curtis
and J. H. Conway. Some documentation:
The above two images seem to contradict a statement by R. T. Curtis
in a 1989 paper. Curtis seemed in that paper to be saying, falsely, that
his original 1973 and 1976 MOG coordinates were those in array M below—
This seemingly false statement involved John H. Conway's supposedly
definitive and natural canonical coordinatization of the 4×6 MOG
array by the symbols for the 24 points of the projective line over GF(23)—
{∞, 0, 1, 2, 3… , 21, 22}:
An explanation of the apparent falsity in Curtis's 1989 paper:
By "two versions of the MOG" Curtis seems to have meant merely that the
octads , and not the projectiveline coordinates , in his earlier papers were
mirror images of the octads that resulted later from the Conway coordinates,
as in the images below.
Profile picture of "Jo Lyxe" (Josefine Lyche) at Vimeo—
Compare to an image of Vril muse Maria Orsitsch.
From the catalog of a current art exhibition
(25 May – 31 August, 2013) in Norway,
I DE LANGE NÆTTER —
Josefine Lyche
Keywords (to help place my artwork in the (See also the original catalog page.) 
Clearly most of this (the nonhighlighted parts) was taken
from my webpage Diamond Theory. I suppose I should be
flattered, but I am not thrilled to be associated with the
(apparently fictional) Vril Society.
For some background, see (for instance)
Conspiracy Theories and Secret Societies for Dummies .
The New York Times March 10–
"Paris  A Show About Nothing"–
The Times describes one of the empty rooms on exhibit as…
"… Yves Klein’s 'La spécialisation de la sensibilité à l’état matière première en sensibilité picturale stabilisée, Le Vide' ('The Specialization of Sensibility in the Raw Material State Into Stabilized Pictorial Sensibility, the Void')"
This is a mistranslation. See "An Aesthetics of Matter" (pdf), by Kiyohiko Kitamura and Tomoyuki Kitamura, pp. 85101 in International Yearbook of Aesthetics, Volume 6, 2002—
"The exhibition «La spécialisation de la sensibilité à l’état matièrepremière en sensibilité picturale stabilisée», better known as «Le Vide» (The Void) was held at the Gallery Iris Clert in Paris from April 28th till May 5th, 1955." –p. 94
"… «Sensibility in the state of prime matter»… filled the emptiness." –p. 95
Kitamura and Kitamura translate matière première correctly as "prime matter" (the prima materia of the scholastic philosophers) rather than "raw material." (The phrase in French can mean either.)
The link above to
prima materia
is to an 1876 review
by Cardinal Manning of
a work on philosophy
by T. P. Kirkman, whose
"schoolgirl problem" is
closely related to the
finite space of the
diamond theorem.
… Todo lo sé por el lucero puro
que brilla en la diadema de la Muerte.
— Rubén Darío,
born January 18, 1867
"Mazur introduced the topic of prime numbers with a story from Don Quixote in which Quixote asked a poet to write a poem with 17 lines. Because 17 is prime, the poet couldn't find a length for the poem's stanzas and was thus stymied."
— Undated American Mathematical Society news item about a Nov. 1, 2007, event
Desconvencida,
Jueves, Enero 17, 2008
Horses of a Dream
(Log24, Sept. 12, 2003)
Knight Moves
(Log24 yesterday–
anniversary of the
Jan. 16 publication
of Don Quixote)
Windmill and Diamond
(St. Cecilia's Day 2006)
Click on the image for a larger version
and an expansion of some remarks
quoted here on Christmas 2005.
Serious
"I don't think the 'diamond theorem' is anything serious, so I started with blitzing that."
— Charles Matthews at Wikipedia, Oct. 2, 2006
"The 'seriousness' of a mathematical theorem lies, not in its practical consequences, which are usually negligible, but in the significance of the mathematical ideas which it connects. We may say, roughly, that a mathematical idea is 'significant' if it can be connected, in a natural and illuminating way, with a large complex of other mathematical ideas."
— G. H. Hardy, A Mathematician's Apology
Matthews yesterday deleted references to the diamond theorem and related material in the following Wikipedia articles:
Affine group
Reflection group
Symmetry in mathematics
Incidence structure
Invariant (mathematics)
Symmetry
Finite geometry
Group action
History of geometry
This would appear to be a fairly large complex of mathematical ideas.
See also the following "large complex" cited, following the above words of Hardy, in Diamond Theory:
Affine geometry, affine planes, affine spaces, automorphisms, binary codes, block designs, classical groups, codes, coding theory, collineations, combinatorial, combinatorics, conjugacy classes, the Conwell correspondence, correlations, design theory, duads, duality, error correcting codes, exceptional groups, finite fields, finite geometry, finite groups, finite rings, Galois fields, generalized quadrangles, generators, geometry, GF(2), GF(4), the (24,12) Golay code, group actions, group theory, Hadamard matrices, hypercube, hyperplanes, hyperspace, incidence structures, invariance, Karnaugh maps, Kirkman's schoolgirl problem, Latin squares, Leech lattice, linear groups, linear spaces, linear transformations, Mathieu groups, matrix theory, Meno, Miracle Octad Generator, MOG, multiply transitive groups, octads, the octahedral group, orthogonal arrays, outer automorphisms, parallelisms, partial geometries, permutation groups, PG(3,2), polarities, PolyaBurnside theorem, projective geometry, projective planes, projective spaces, projectivities, ReedMuller codes, the relativity problem, Singer cycle, skew lines, sporadic simple groups, Steiner systems, symmetric, symmetry, symplectic, synthemes, synthematic, tesseract, transvections, Walsh functions, Witt designs.
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