# Log24

## Tuesday, December 18, 2018

Filed under: General — Tags: , — m759 @ 12:59 PM

The recent post "Tales from Story Space," about the 18th birthday
of the protagonist in the TV series "Shadowhunters" (2016-),
suggests a review of the actual  18th birthday of actress Lily Collins.

Collins is shown below warding off evil with a magical rune as
a shadowhunter in the 2013 film "City of Bones" —

She turned 18 on March 18, 2007.  A paper on symmetry and logic
referenced here on that date displays the following "runes" of
philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce

and the webpage Geometry of the I Ching.

## Friday, January 5, 2018

### Types of Ambiguity

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 2:56 AM

From "The Principle of Sufficient Reason," by George David Birkhoff
in "Three Public Lectures on Scientific Subjects,"
delivered at the Rice Institute, March 6, 7, and 8, 1940 —

From the same lecture —

 Up to the present point my aim has been to consider a variety of applications of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, without attempting any precise formulation of the Principle itself. With these applications in mind I will venture to formulate the Principle and a related Heuristic Conjecture in quasi-mathematical form as follows: PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT REASON. If there appears in any theory T a set of ambiguously  determined ( i e . symmetrically entering) variables, then these variables can themselves be determined only to the extent allowed by the corresponding group G. Consequently any problem concerning these variables which has a uniquely determined solution, must itself be formulated so as to be unchanged by the operations of the group G ( i e . must involve the variables symmetrically). HEURISTIC CONJECTURE. The final form of any scientific theory T is: (1) based on a few simple postulates; and (2) contains an extensive ambiguity, associated symmetry, and underlying group G, in such wise that, if the language and laws of the theory of groups be taken for granted, the whole theory T appears as nearly self-evident in virtue of the above Principle. The Principle of Sufficient Reason and the Heuristic Conjecture, as just formulated, have the advantage of not involving excessively subjective ideas, while at the same time retaining the essential kernel of the matter. In my opinion it is essentially this principle and this conjecture which are destined always to operate as the basic criteria for the scientist in extending our knowledge and understanding of the world. It is also my belief that, in so far as there is anything definite in the realm of Metaphysics, it will consist in further applications of the same general type. This general conclusion may be given the following suggestive symbolic form: While the skillful metaphysical use of the Principle must always be regarded as of dubious logical status, nevertheless I believe it will remain the most important weapon of the philosopher.

Related remarks by a founding member of the Metaphysical Club:

## Sunday, November 27, 2016

### A Machine That Will Fit

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 8:00 AM

Or:  Notes for the Metaphysical Club

"He… stands in contrast to the the dualistic
approach of Eliot, who so often speaks of poetry
as though it were an emotional and sensational
soul looking for a 'correlative' skeleton of
thought to be provided by a philosopher, a
Cartesian ghost trying to find a machine that
will fit."

Ralph Waldo Emerson on "vacant and vain" knowledge:

"The new position of the advancing man has all
the powers of the old, yet has them all new. It
carries in its bosom all the energies of the past,
yet is itself an exhalation of the morning. I cast
away in this new moment all my once hoarded
knowledge, as vacant and vain."

Harold Bloom on Emerson:

"Emerson may not have invented the American
Sublime, yet he took eternal possession of it."

Wallace Stevens on the American Sublime:

"And the sublime comes down
To the spirit itself,

The spirit and space,
The empty spirit
In vacant space."

A founding member of the Metaphysical Club:

## Sunday, September 25, 2016

### Introduction to Pragmatism

Filed under: General — Tags: , — m759 @ 7:29 AM

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
on the origins of Pragmatism:

"Pragmatism had been born in the discussions at
a ‘metaphysical club’ in Harvard around 1870
(see Menand…*). Peirce and James participated
in these discussions along with some other philosophers
and philosophically inclined lawyers. As we have
already noted, Peirce developed these ideas in his
publications from the 1870s."

 From "How to Make Our Ideas Clear," by Charles Sanders Peirce in 1878 — "The very first lesson that we have a right to demand that logic shall teach us is, how to make our ideas clear; and a most important one it is, depreciated only by minds who stand in need of it. To know what we think, to be masters of our own meaning, will make a solid foundation for great and weighty thought. It is most easily learned by those whose ideas are meagre and restricted; and far happier they than such as wallow helplessly in a rich mud of conceptions. A nation, it is true, may, in the course of generations, overcome the disadvantage of an excessive wealth of language and its natural concomitant, a vast, unfathomable deep of ideas. We may see it in history, slowly perfecting its literary forms, sloughing at length its metaphysics, and, by virtue of the untirable patience which is often a compensation, attaining great excellence in every branch of mental acquirement. The page of history is not yet unrolled which is to tell us whether such a people will or will not in the long-run prevail over one whose ideas (like the words of their language) are few, but which possesses a wonderful mastery over those which it has. For an individual, however, there can be no question that a few clear ideas are worth more than many confused ones. A young man would hardly be persuaded to sacrifice the greater part of his thoughts to save the rest; and the muddled head is the least apt to see the necessity of such a sacrifice. Him we can usually only commiserate, as a person with a congenital defect. Time will help him, but intellectual maturity with regard to clearness comes rather late, an unfortunate arrangement of Nature, inasmuch as clearness is of less use to a man settled in life, whose errors have in great measure had their effect, than it would be to one whose path lies before him. It is terrible to see how a single unclear idea, a single formula without meaning, lurking in a young man's head, will sometimes act like an obstruction of inert matter in an artery, hindering the nutrition of the brain, and condemning its victim to pine away in the fullness of his intellectual vigor and in the midst of intellectual plenty. Many a man has cherished for years as his hobby some vague shadow of an idea, too meaningless to be positively false; he has, nevertheless, passionately loved it, has made it his companion by day and by night, and has given to it his strength and his life, leaving all other occupations for its sake, and in short has lived with it and for it, until it has become, as it were, flesh of his flesh and bone of his bone; and then he has waked up some bright morning to find it gone, clean vanished away like the beautiful Melusina of the fable, and the essence of his life gone with it. I have myself known such a man; and who can tell how many histories of circle-squarers, metaphysicians, astrologers, and what not, may not be told in the old German story?"

Peirce himself may or may not have been entirely successful
in making his ideas clear.  See Where Credit Is Due  (Log24,
June 11, 2016) and the Wikipedia article Categories (Peirce).

* Menand, L., 2001. The Metaphysical Club A Story of
Ideas in America

, New York:  Farrar, Straus and Giroux

## Tuesday, April 26, 2016

### Interacting

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 8:31 PM

"… I would drop the keystone into my arch …."

Charles Sanders Peirce, "On Phenomenology"

" 'But which is the stone that supports the bridge?' Kublai Khan asks."

— Italo Calvino, Invisible Cities, as quoted by B. Elan Dresher.

(B. Elan Dresher. Nordlyd  41.2 (2014): 165-181,
special issue on Features edited by Martin Krämer,
Sandra Ronai and Peter Svenonius. University of Tromsø –
The Arctic University of Norway.
http://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/nordlyd)

Peter Svenonius and Martin Krämer, introduction to the
Nordlyd  double issue on Features —

"Interacting with these questions about the 'geometric'
relations among features is the algebraic structure
of the features."

For another such interaction, see the previous post.

This  post may be viewed as a commentary on a remark in Wikipedia

"All of these ideas speak to the crux of Plato's Problem…."

## Friday, March 28, 2014

### Musement

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 7:00 PM

(The title is from a work by Charles Sanders Peirce.)

For LYNX 760 —

For more beauty and strangeness, see Strange McEntire.

## Monday, March 3, 2014

### Outside the Box

Filed under: General — m759 @ 10:00 PM

Click for related material.

## Saturday, July 21, 2007

### Saturday July 21, 2007

Filed under: General — Tags: — m759 @ 9:45 AM

Death of a Nominalist

“All our words from loose using have lost their edge.” –Ernest Hemingway

(The Hemingway quotation is from the AP’s “Today in History” on July 21, 2007; for the context, see Death in the Afternoon.)

Today seems as good a day as any for noting the death of an author previously discussed in Log24 on January 29, 2007, and January 31, 2007.

Joseph Goguen
died on July 3, 2006. (I learned of his death only after the entries of January 2007 were written. They still hold.)

Goguen’s death may be viewed in the context of the ongoing war between the realism of Plato and the nominalism of the sophists. (See, for instance, Log24 on August 10-15, 2004, and on July 3-5, 2007.)

Joseph A. Goguen, “Ontology, Society, and Ontotheology” (pdf):

“Before introducing algebraic semiotics and structural blending, it is good to be clear about their philosophical orientation. The reason for taking special care with this is that, in Western culture, mathematical formalisms are often given a status beyond what they deserve. For example, Euclid wrote, ‘The laws of nature are but the mathematical thoughts of God.’ Similarly, the ‘situations’ in the situation semantics of Barwise and Perry, which resemble conceptual spaces (but are more sophisticated– perhaps too sophisticated), are considered to be actually existing, real entities [23], even though they may include what are normally considered judgements.5 The classical semiotics of Charles Sanders Peirce [24] also tends towards a Platonist view of signs. The viewpoint of this paper is that all formalisms are constructed in the course of some task, such as scientific study or engineering design, for the heuristic purpose of facilitating consideration of certain issues in that task. Under this view, all theories are situated social entities, mathematical theories no less than others; of course, this does not mean that they are not useful.”

5 The “types” of situation theory are even further removed from concrete reality.

[23] Jon Barwise and John Perry. Situations and Attitudes. MIT (Bradford), 1983.
[24] Charles Sanders Peirce. Collected Papers. Harvard, 1965. In 6 volumes; see especially Volume 2: Elements of Logic.

From Log24 on the date of Goguen’s death:

Requiem for a clown:

“At times, bullshit can only be
countered with superior bullshit.”

This same Mailer aphorism was quoted, along with an excerpt from the Goguen passage above, in Log24 this year on the date of Norman Mailer’s birth.  Also quoted on that date:

Sophia. Then these thoughts of Nature are also thoughts of God.

Alfred. Undoubtedly so, but however valuable the expression may be, I would rather that we should not make use of it till we are convinced that our investigation leads to a view of Nature, which is also the contemplation of God. We shall then feel justified by a different and more perfect knowledge to call the thoughts of Nature those of God….

Whether the above excerpt– from Hans Christian Oersted‘s The Soul in Nature (1852)– is superior to the similar remark of Goguen, the reader may decide.

## Thursday, March 8, 2007

### Thursday March 8, 2007

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 1:00 PM
Day Without
Logic

Symbol of the Dec. 1
Day Without Art

This resembles the following symbol,
due to logician Charles Sanders Peirce,
of the logic of binary opposition:

(For futher details on the role
of this symbol in logic, see
Chinese Jar Revisited.)

On this, International Women’s Day,
we might also consider the
widely quoted thoughts on logic of
Harvard professor Barbara Johnson:

Detail:

“Instead of a simple ‘either/or’ structure,
deconstruction attempts to elaborate a discourse
that says neither “either/or”, nor “both/and”
nor even “neither/nor”, while at the same time
not totally abandoning these logics either.”

It may also be of interest on
International Women’s Day
that in the “box style” I Ching
(suggested by a remark of
Jungian analyst
Marie-Louise von Franz)
the symbol

denotes
Hexagram 2,
The Receptive.

## Tuesday, June 27, 2006

### Tuesday June 27, 2006

Filed under: General,Geometry — m759 @ 10:31 AM
Chinese Jar
Revisited

In memory of
Irving Kaplansky,
who died on
Sunday, June 25, 2006

“Only by the form, the pattern,
Can words or music reach
The stillness, as a Chinese jar still
Moves perpetually in its stillness.”

Kaplansky received his doctorate in mathematics at Harvard in 1941 as the first Ph.D. student of Saunders Mac Lane.

From the April 25, 2005, Harvard Crimson:

Gade University Professor of Mathematics Barry Mazur, a friend of the late Mac Lane, recalled that [a Mac Lane paper of 1945] had at first been rejected from a lower-caliber mathematical journal because the editor thought that it was “more devoid of content” than any other he had read.

“Saunders wrote back and said, ‘That’s the point,'” Mazur said. “And in some ways that’s the genius of it. It’s the barest, most Beckett-like vocabulary that incorporates the theory and nothing else.”

He likened it to a sparse grammar of nouns and verbs and a limited vocabulary that is presented “in such a deft way that it will help you understand any language you wish to understand and any language will fit into it.”

A sparse grammar of lines from Charles Sanders Peirce (Harvard College, class of 1859):

It is true of this set of binary connectives, as it is true of logic generally, that (as alleged above of Mac Lane’s category theory) “it will help you understand any language you wish to understand and any language will fit into it.” Of course, a great deal of questionable material has been written about these connectives. (See, for instance, Piaget and De Giacomo.) For remarks on the connectives that are not questionable, see Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (English version, 1922), section 5.101, and Knuth’s “Boolean Basics” (draft, 2006).

Related entry: Binary Geometry.

## Friday, June 23, 2006

### Friday June 23, 2006

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: — m759 @ 2:56 PM

Binary Geometry

There is currently no area of mathematics named “binary geometry.” This is, therefore, a possible name for the geometry of sets with 2n elements (i.e., a sub-topic of Galois geometry and of algebraic geometry over finite fields– part of Weil’s “Rosetta stone” (pdf)).

Examples: