Sunday, September 27, 2020

Remarks on Gordon Baker’s Death Day*

Filed under: General — Tags: , , — m759 @ 12:59 PM

* Baker was a writer on philosophy.
See a memorial by the Harvard Class of 1960.

Gleaming the Cube

Filed under: General — Tags: , , — m759 @ 1:30 AM

From a search in this journal for “Paradise of Childhood” —

Page from 'The Paradise of Childhood,' 1906 edition

Thursday, January 19, 2017

Inarticulate Image

Filed under: General — Tags: , — m759 @ 11:07 AM

The “inarticulate” image from last night’s
Raid on the Inarticulate” —

This is, in a sense, an island of nothing in a sea of being.

Contrast with an opposite image in Wittgenstein’s “Diktat für Schlick”:

From The Voices of Wittgenstein: The Vienna Circle ,
ed. by Gordon Baker, first published by Routledge
in 2003. From Ch. 1, “Dictation for Schlick” —

p. 69 —
“Our method resembles psychoanalysis in a certain sense.
To use its way of putting things, we could say that a
simile at work in the unconscious is made harmless by
being articulated. And this comparison with analysis
p.71 —
can be developed even further. (And this analogy is
certainly no coincidence.)
Anyone who speaks of the opposition of being and
the nothing, and of the nothing as something primary
in contrast to negation, has in mind, I think, a
picture of an island of being which is being washed
by an infinite ocean of the nothing. Whatever we throw
into this ocean will be dissolved in its water and
annihilated. But the ocean itself is endlessly restless
like the waves on the sea. It exists, it is, and we say
‘It noths’. But how is it possible to demonstrate to
someone that this simile is actually the correct one?
This cannot be shown at all. But if we free him from his
confusion then we have accomplished what we wanted to
do for him.”

“Ripples spread from castle rock ….” — “Endgame,” 1986

Sunday, July 10, 2011

Wittgenstein’s Diamond

Filed under: General,Geometry — Tags: , — m759 @ 9:29 AM

Philosophical Investigations  (1953)

97. Thought is surrounded by a halo.
—Its essence, logic, presents an order,
in fact the a priori order of the world:
that is, the order of possibilities * ,
which must be common to both world and thought.
But this order, it seems, must be
utterly simple . It is prior  to all experience,
must run through all experience;
no empirical cloudiness or uncertainty can be allowed to affect it
——It must rather be of the purest crystal.
But this crystal does not appear as an abstraction;
but as something concrete, indeed, as the most concrete,
as it were the hardest  thing there is
(Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus  No. 5.5563).

— Translation by G.E.M. Anscombe


All propositions of our colloquial language
are actually, just as they are, logically completely in order.
That simple thing which we ought to give here is not
a model of the truth but the complete truth itself.

(Our problems are not abstract but perhaps
the most concrete that there are.)

97. Das Denken ist mit einem Nimbus umgeben.
—Sein Wesen, die Logik, stellt eine Ordnung dar,
und zwar die Ordnung a priori der Welt,
d.i. die Ordnung der Möglichkeiten ,
die Welt und Denken gemeinsam sein muß.
Diese Ordnung aber, scheint es, muß
höchst einfach  sein. Sie ist vor  aller Erfahrung;
muß sich durch die ganze Erfahrung hindurchziehen;
ihr selbst darf keine erfahrungsmäßige Trübe oder Unsicherheit anhaften.
——Sie muß vielmehr vom reinsten Kristall sein.
Dieser Kristall aber erscheint nicht als eine Abstraktion;
sondern als etwas Konkretes, ja als das Konkreteste,
gleichsam Härteste . (Log. Phil. Abh.  No. 5.5563.)

See also

Related language in Łukasiewicz (1937)—


* Updates of 9:29 PM ET July 10, 2011—

A  mnemonic  from a course titled “Galois Connections and Modal Logics“—

“Traditionally, there are two modalities, namely, possibility and necessity.
The basic modal operators are usually written box (square) for necessarily
and diamond (diamond) for possibly. Then, for example, diamondP  can be read as
‘it is possibly the case that P .'”

See also Intensional Semantics , lecture notes by Kai von Fintel and Irene Heim, MIT, Spring 2007 edition—

“The diamond symbol for possibility is due to C.I. Lewis, first introduced in Lewis & Langford (1932), but he made no use of a symbol for the dual combination ¬¬. The dual symbol was later devised by F.B. Fitch and first appeared in print in 1946 in a paper by his doctoral student Barcan (1946). See footnote 425 of Hughes & Cresswell (1968). Another notation one finds is L for necessity and M for possibility, the latter from the German möglich  ‘possible.’”

Barcan, Ruth C.: 1946. “A Functional Calculus of First Order Based on Strict Implication.” Journal of Symbolic Logic, 11(1): 1–16. URL http://www.jstor.org/pss/2269159.

Hughes, G.E. & Cresswell, M.J.: 1968. An Introduction to Modal Logic. London: Methuen.

Lewis, Clarence Irving & Langford, Cooper Harold: 1932. Symbolic Logic. New York: Century.

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