Monday, January 21, 2019
Fall, 1939
Meditation for the Champ de Mors
"his onesidemissing for an allblind alley
leading to an Irish plot in the Champ de Mors"
— James Joyce, Finnegans Wake
Sunday, January 20, 2019
Scope Resolution
Wikipedia on a programming term —
The scope resolution operator helps to identify
and specify the context to which an identifier refers,
particularly by specifying a namespace. The specific
uses vary across different programming languages
with the notions of scoping. In many languages
the scope resolution operator is written
"::".
In a completely different context, these four dots might represent
a geometric object — the fourpoint plane .
Saturday, January 19, 2019
Friday, January 18, 2019
Location, Location, Location
The Woke Grids …
… as opposed to The Dreaming Jewels .
A July 2014 Amsterdam master's thesis on the Golay code
and Mathieu group —
"The properties of G_{24} and M_{24} are visualized by
four geometric objects: the icosahedron, dodecahedron,
dodecadodecahedron, and the cubicuboctahedron."
Some "geometric objects" — rectangular, square, and cubic arrays —
are even more fundamental than the above polyhedra.
A related image from a post of Dec. 1, 2018 —
Thursday, January 10, 2019
Tuesday, December 18, 2018
Shadowhunter Tales
The recent post "Tales from Story Space," about the 18th birthday
of the protagonist in the TV series "Shadowhunters" (2016),
suggests a review of the actual 18th birthday of actress Lily Collins.
Collins is shown below warding off evil with a magical rune as
a shadowhunter in the 2013 film "City of Bones" —
She turned 18 on March 18, 2007. A paper on symmetry and logic
referenced here on that date displays the following "runes" of
philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce —
See also Adamantine Meditation (Log24, Oct. 3, 2018)
and the webpage Geometry of the I Ching.
Sunday, December 16, 2018
Sunday, December 2, 2018
Symmetry at Hiroshima
A search this morning for articles mentioning the Miracle Octad Generator
of R. T. Curtis within the last year yielded an abstract for two talks given
at Hiroshima on March 8 and 9, 2018 —
http://www.math.sci.hiroshimau.ac.jp/ Iain AITCHISON Title: Construction of highly symmetric Riemann surfaces, related manifolds, and some exceptional objects, I, II Abstract: Since antiquity, some mathematical objects have played a special role, underpinning new mathematics as understanding deepened. Perhaps archetypal are the Platonic polyhedra, subsequently related to Platonic idealism, and the contentious notion of existence of mathematical reality independent of human consciousness. Exceptional or unique objects are often associated with symmetry – manifest or hidden. In topology and geometry, we have natural base points for the moduli spaces of closed genus 2 and 3 surfaces (arising from the 2fold branched cover of the sphere over the 6 vertices of the octahedron, and Klein's quartic curve, respectively), and Bring's genus 4 curve arises in Klein's description of the solution of polynomial equations of degree greater than 4, as well as in the construction of the HorrocksMumford bundle. Poincare's homology 3sphere, and Kummer's surface in real dimension 4 also play special roles. In other areas: we have the exceptional Lie algebras such as E8; the sporadic finite simple groups; the division algebras: Golay's binary and ternary codes; the Steiner triple systems S(5,6,12) and S(5,8,24); the Leech lattice; the outer automorphisms of the symmetric group S6; the triality map in dimension 8; and so on. We also note such as: the 27 lines on a cubic, the 28 bitangents of a quartic curve, the 120 tritangents of a sextic curve, and so on, related to Galois' exceptional finite groups PSL2(p) (for p= 5,7,11), and various other socalled `Arnol'd Trinities'. Motivated originally by the `Eightfold Way' sculpture at MSRI in Berkeley, we discuss interrelationships between a selection of these objects, illustrating connections arising via highly symmetric Riemann surface patterns. These are constructed starting with a labeled polygon and an involution on its label set. Necessarily, in two lectures, we will neither delve deeply into, nor describe in full, contexts within which exceptional objects arise. We will, however, give sufficient definition and detail to illustrate essential interconnectedness of those exceptional objects considered. Our starting point will be simplistic, arising from ancient Greek ideas underlying atomism, and Plato's concepts of space. There will be some overlap with a previous talk on this material, but we will illustrate with some different examples, and from a different philosophical perspective. Some new results arising from this work will also be given, such as an alternative graphicillustrated MOG (Miracle Octad Generator) for the Steiner system S(5,8,24), and an alternative to Singerman – Jones' genus 70 Riemann surface previously proposed as a completion of an Arnol'd Trinity. Our alternative candidate also completes a Trinity whose two other elements are Thurston's highly symmetric 6 and 8component links, the latter related by Thurston to Klein's quartic curve. 
See also yesterday morning's post, "Character."
Update: For a followup, see the next Log24 post.
Tuesday, November 20, 2018
Logos
Musical accompaniment from Sunday morning —
Update of Nov. 21 —
The reader may contrast the above Squarespace.com logo
(a rather serpentine version of the acronym SS) with a simpler logo
for a square space (the Galois window ):
Tuesday, November 6, 2018
Bait and Tackle
Monday, November 5, 2018
Sunday, November 4, 2018
“Look Up” — The Breakthrough Prize* Theme This Evening
Looking up images for "The Space Theory of Truth" this evening —
Detail (from the post "Logos" of Oct. 14) —
Saturday, November 3, 2018
For St. Anselm
"… at his home in San Anselmo . . . ."
See also Anselm in this journal, as well as the Devil's Night post Ojos.
Tuesday, October 30, 2018
Friday, September 14, 2018
Denkraum
Underlying the I Ching structure is the finite affine space
of six dimensions over the Galois field with two elements.
In this field, "1 + 1 = 0," as noted here Wednesday.
See also other posts now tagged Interstice.
Sunday, September 9, 2018
Plan 9 Continues.
"The role of Desargues's theorem was not understood until
the Desargues configuration was discovered. For example,
the fundamental role of Desargues's theorem in the coordinatization
of synthetic projective geometry can only be understood in the light
of the Desargues configuration.
Thus, even as simple a formal statement as Desargues's theorem
is not quite what it purports to be. The statement of Desargues's theorem
pretends to be definitive, but in reality it is only the tip of an iceberg
of connections with other facts of mathematics."
— From p. 192 of "The Phenomenology of Mathematical Proof,"
by GianCarlo Rota, in Synthese , Vol. 111, No. 2, Proof and Progress
in Mathematics (May, 1997), pp. 183196. Published by: Springer.
Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/20117627.
Related figures —
Note the 3×3 subsquare containing the triangles ABC, etc.
"That in which space itself is contained" — Wallace Stevens
Friday, July 6, 2018
Something
"… Only by the form, the pattern,
Can words or music reach
The stillness, as a Chinese jar still
Moves perpetually in its stillness."
— T. S. Eliot, "Burnt Norton," 1936
"Read something that means something."
— Advertising slogan for The New Yorker
The previous post quoted some mystic meditations of Octavio Paz
from 1974. I prefer some less mystic remarks of Eddington from
1938 (the Tanner Lectures) published by Cambridge U. Press in 1939 —
"… we have sixteen elements with which to form a groupstructure" —
See as well posts tagged Dirac and Geometry.
Wednesday, June 27, 2018
Taken In
A passage that may or may not have influenced Madeleine L'Engle's
writings about the tesseract :
From Mere Christianity , by C. S. Lewis (1952) —
"Book IV – Beyond Personality: I warned you that Theology is practical. The whole purpose for which we exist is to be thus taken into the life of God. Wrong ideas about what that life is, will make it harder. And now, for a few minutes, I must ask you to follow rather carefully. You know that in space you can move in three ways—to left or right, backwards or forwards, up or down. Every direction is either one of these three or a compromise between them. They are called the three Dimensions. Now notice this. If you are using only one dimension, you could draw only a straight line. If you are using two, you could draw a figure: say, a square. And a square is made up of four straight lines. Now a step further. If you have three dimensions, you can then build what we call a solid body, say, a cube—a thing like a dice or a lump of sugar. And a cube is made up of six squares. Do you see the point? A world of one dimension would be a straight line. In a twodimensional world, you still get straight lines, but many lines make one figure. In a threedimensional world, you still get figures but many figures make one solid body. In other words, as you advance to more real and more complicated levels, you do not leave behind you the things you found on the simpler levels: you still have them, but combined in new ways—in ways you could not imagine if you knew only the simpler levels. Now the Christian account of God involves just the same principle. The human level is a simple and rather empty level. On the human level one person is one being, and any two persons are two separate beings—just as, in two dimensions (say on a flat sheet of paper) one square is one figure, and any two squares are two separate figures. On the Divine level you still find personalities; but up there you find them combined in new ways which we, who do not live on that level, cannot imagine. In God's dimension, so to speak, you find a being who is three Persons while remaining one Being, just as a cube is six squares while remaining one cube. Of course we cannot fully conceive a Being like that: just as, if we were so made that we perceived only two dimensions in space we could never properly imagine a cube. But we can get a sort of faint notion of it. And when we do, we are then, for the first time in our lives, getting some positive idea, however faint, of something superpersonal—something more than a person. It is something we could never have guessed, and yet, once we have been told, one almost feels one ought to have been able to guess it because it fits in so well with all the things we know already. You may ask, "If we cannot imagine a threepersonal Being, what is the good of talking about Him?" Well, there isn't any good talking about Him. The thing that matters is being actually drawn into that threepersonal life, and that may begin any time —tonight, if you like. . . . . 
But beware of being drawn into the personal life of the Happy Family .
https://www.jstor.org/stable/24966339 —
"The colorful story of this undertaking begins with a bang."
And ends with …
"Galois was a thoroughly obnoxious nerd,
suffering from what today would be called
a 'personality disorder.' His anger was
paranoid and unremitting."
Friday, May 4, 2018
The Tuchman Radical*
Two excerpts from today's Art & Design section of
The New York Times —
For the deplorables of France —
For further remarks on l'ordre ,
see posts tagged Galois's Space
(… tag=galoissspace).
* The radical of the title is Évariste Galois (18111832).
Tuesday, May 1, 2018
Wake
Remarks on space from 1998 by scifi author Robert J. Sawyer quoted
here on Sunday (see the tag "Sawyer's Space") suggest a review of
rather similar remarks on space from 1977 by scifi author M. A. Foster
(see the tag "Foster's Space"):
Quoted here on September 26, 2012 —
"All she had to do was kick off and flow."
"I'se so silly to be flowing but I no canna stay."
Another work by Sawyer —
Sunday, April 29, 2018
Amusement
From the online New York Times this afternoon:
Disney now holds nine of the top 10
domestic openings of all time —
six of which are part of the Marvel
Cinematic Universe. “The result is
a reflection of 10 years of work:
of developing this universe, creating
stakes as big as they were, characters
that matter and stories and worlds that
people have come to love,” Dave Hollis,
Disney’s president of distribution, said
in a phone interview.
From this journal this morning:
"But she felt there must be more to this
than just the sensation of folding space
over on itself. Surely the Centaurs hadn't
spent ten years telling humanity how to
make a fancy amusementpark ride.
There had to be more—"
— Factoring Humanity , by Robert J. Sawyer,
Tom Doherty Associates, 2004 Orb edition,
page 168
"The sensation of folding space . . . ."
Or unfolding:
Click the above unfolded space for some background.
Thursday, April 19, 2018
Something to Behold
From a review of a Joyce Carol Oates novel
at firstthings.com on August 23, 2013 —
"Though the Curse is eventually exorcised,
it is through an act of wit and guile,
not an act of repentance or reconciliation.
And so we may wonder if Oates has put this story
to rest, or if it simply lays dormant. A twentyfirst
century eruption of the 'Crosswicks Curse'
would be something to behold." [Link added.]
Related material —
A film version of A Wrinkle in Time —
The Hamilton watch from "Interstellar" (2014) —
See also a post, Vacant Space, from 8/23/13 (the date
of the above review), and posts tagged Space Writer.
Monday, March 12, 2018
“Quantum Tesseract Theorem?”
Remarks related to a recent film and a notsorecent film.
For some historical background, see Dirac and Geometry in this journal.
Also (as Thas mentions) after Saniga and Planat —
The SanigaPlanat paper was submitted on December 21, 2006.
Excerpts from this journal on that date —
"Open the pod bay doors, HAL."
Wednesday, March 7, 2018
Excited
"How do you get young people excited about space?"
— Megan Garber in The Atlantic , Aug. 16, 2012
The above quote is from this journal on 9/11, 2014.
Related material —
Synchronology for the above date — 9/11, 2014 —
A BuzzFeed article with that date, and in reply
"A Personal Statement from Michael Shermer" with that date.
Wednesday, February 28, 2018
A Girl’s Guide to Chaos
The title is that of a play mentioned last night in
a New York Times obituary .
Related recent film lines —
 Thor: How do I escape?

Heimdall: You're on a planet surrounded by doorways.
Go through one.  Thor: Which one?
 Heimdall: The big one!
Related material from this journal on Jan. 20, 2018 —
Mathematics and Narrative
Excerpts from a post of May 25, 2005 —
Above is an example I like of mathematics….
Here is an example I like of narrative:
Kate felt quite dizzy. She didn't know exactly what it was that had just happened, but she felt pretty damn certain that it was the sort of experience that her mother would not have approved of on a first date. "Is this all part of what we have to do to go to Asgard?" she said. "Or are you just fooling around?" "We will go to Asgard...now," he said. At that moment he raised his hand as if to pluck an apple, but instead of plucking he made a tiny, sharp turning movement. The effect was as if he had twisted the entire world through a billionth part of a billionth part of a degree. Everything shifted, was for a moment minutely out of focus, and then snapped back again as a suddenly different world.
— Douglas Adams, The Long Dark TeaTime of the Soul
Image from a different different world —
Hattip to a related Feb. 26 weblog post
at the American Mathematical Society.
Friday, February 16, 2018
Two Kinds of Symmetry
The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) at Princeton in its Fall 2015 Letter
revived "Beautiful Mathematics" as a title:
This ugly phrase was earlier used by Truman State University
professor Martin Erickson as a book title. See below.
In the same IAS Fall 2015 Letter appear the following remarks
by Freeman Dyson —
". . . a special case of a much deeper connection that Ian Macdonald
discovered between two kinds of symmetry which we call modular and affine.
The two kinds of symmetry were originally found in separate parts of science,
modular in pure mathematics and affine in physics. Modular symmetry is
displayed for everyone to see in the drawings of flying angels and devils
by the artist Maurits Escher. Escher understood the mathematics and got the
details right. Affine symmetry is displayed in the peculiar groupings of particles
created by physicists with highenergy accelerators. The mathematician
Robert Langlands was the first to conjecture a connection between these and
other kinds of symmetry. . . ." (Wikipedia link added.)
The adjective "modular" might aptly be applied to . . .
The adjective "affine" might aptly be applied to . . .
The geometry of the 4×4 square combines modular symmetry
(i.e., related to theta functions) with the affine symmetry above.
Hudson's 1905 discussion of modular symmetry (that of Rosenhain
tetrads and Göpel tetrads) in the 4×4 square used a parametrization
of that square by the digit 0 and the fifteen 2subsets of a 6set, but
did not discuss the 4×4 square as an affine space.
For the connection of the 15 Kummer modular 2subsets with the 16
element affine space over the twoelement Galois field GF(2), see my note
of May 26, 1986, "The 2subsets of a 6set are the points of a PG(3,2)" —
— and the affine structure in the 1979 AMS abstract
"Symmetry invariance in a diamond ring" —
For some historical background on the symmetry investigations by
Dyson and Macdonald, see Dyson's 1972 article "MIssed Opportunities."
For Macdonald's own use of the words "modular" and "affine," see
Macdonald, I. G., "Affine Lie algebras and modular forms,"
Séminaire N. Bourbaki , Vol. 23 (19801981), Talk no. 577, pp. 258276.
Thursday, January 25, 2018
Beware of Analogical Extension
"By an archetype I mean a systematic repertoire
of ideas by means of which a given thinker describes,
by analogical extension , some domain to which
those ideas do not immediately and literally apply."
— Max Black in Models and Metaphors
(Cornell, 1962, p. 241)
"Others … spoke of 'ultimate frames of reference' …."
— Ibid.
A "frame of reference" for the concept four quartets —
A less reputable analogical extension of the same
frame of reference —
Madeleine L'Engle in A Swiftly Tilting Planet :
"… deep in concentration, bent over the model
they were building of a tesseract:
the square squared, and squared again…."
See also the phrase Galois tesseract .
Thursday, November 23, 2017
LéviStrauss vs. Propp
Claude LéviStrauss
From his "Structure and Form: To maintain. as I have done. that the permutability of contents is not arbitrary amounts to saying that, if the analysis is carried to a sufficiently deep level, behind diversity we will discover constancy. And, of course. the avowed constancy of form must not hide from us that functions are also permutable. The structure of the folktale as it is illustrated by Propp presents a chronological succession of qualitatively distinct functions. each constituting an independent genre. One can wonder whether—as with dramatis personae and their attributes— Propp does not stop too soon, seeking the form too close to the level of empirical observation. Among the thirtyone functions that he distinguishes, several are reducible to the same function reappearing at different moments of the narrative but after undergoing one or a number of transformations . I have already suggested that this could be true of the false hero (a transformation of the villain), of assigning a difficult task (a transformation of the test), etc. (see p. 181 above), and that in this case the two parties constituting the fundamental tale would themselves be transformations of each other. Nothing prevents pushing this reduction even further and analyzing each separate partie into a small number of recurrent functions, so that several of Propp's functions would constitute groups of transformations of one and the same function. We could treat the "violation" as the reverse of the "prohibition" and the latter as a negative transformation of the "injunction." The "departure" of the hero and his "return" would appear as the negative and positive expressions of the same disjunctive function. The "quest" of the hero (hero pursues someone or something) would become the opposite of "pursuit" (hero is pursued by something or someone), etc.
In Vol. I of Structural Anthropology , p. 209, I have shown that this analysis alone can account for the double aspect of time representation in all mythical systems: the narrative is both "in time" (it consists of a succession of events) and "beyond" (its value is permanent). With regard to Propp's theories my analysis offers another advantage: I can reconcile much better than Propp himself his principle of a permanent order of wondertale elements with the fact that certain functions or groups of functions are shifted from one tale to the next (pp. 9798. p. 108) If my view is accepted, the chronological succession will come to be absorbed into an atemporal matrix structure whose form is indeed constant. The shifting of functions is then no more than a mode of permutation (by vertical columns or fractions of columns). These critical remarks are certainly valid for the method used by Propp and for his conclusions. However. it cannot be stressed enough that Propp envisioned them and in several places formulated with perfect clarity the solutions I have just suggested. Let us take up again from this viewpoint the two essential themes of our discussion: constancy of the content (in spite of its permutability) and permutability of functions (in spite of their constancy).
* Translated from a 1960 work in French. It appeared in English as Chapter VIII 
See also "LéviStrauss" + Formula in this journal.
Some background related to the previous post —
Wednesday, October 25, 2017
To the Egress
The New York Times at 8:22 PM ET —
"Knight Landesman, a longtime publisher of Artforum magazine
and a power broker in the art world, resigned on Wednesday
afternoon, hours after a lawsuit was filed in New York accusing
him of sexually harassing at least nine women in episodes that
stretched back almost a decade."
See as well, in this journal, Way to the Egress.
The Palo Alto Edge
From Stanford — The death on October 9, 2017, of a man who
"always wanted to be at the most cutting of cuttingedge technology."
Related material from Log24 on April 26, 2017 —
A sketch, adapted from Girl Scouts of Palo Alto —
Click the sketch for further details.
Saturday, September 23, 2017
The Turn of the Frame
"With respect to the story's content, the frame thus acts
both as an inclusion of the exterior and as an exclusion
of the interior: it is a perturbation of the outside at the
very core of the story's inside, and as such, it is a blurring
of the very difference between inside and outside."
— Shoshana Felman on a Henry James story, p. 123 in
"Turning the Screw of Interpretation,"
Yale French Studies No. 55/56 (1977), pp. 94207.
Published by Yale University Press.
See also the previous post and The Galois Tesseract.
Tuesday, September 5, 2017
Annals of Critical Epistemology
"But unlike many who left the Communist Party, I turned left
rather than right, and returned—or rather turned for the first time—
to a critical examination of Marx's work. I found—and still find—
that his analysis of capitalism, which for me is the heart of his work,
provides the best starting point, the best critical tools, with which—
suitably developed—to understand contemporary capitalism.
I remind you that this year is also the sesquicentennial of the
Communist Manifesto , a document that still haunts the capitalist world."
— From "Autobiographical Reflections," a talk given on June 5, 1998, by
John Stachel at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin
on the occasion of a workshop honoring his 70th birthday,
"SpaceTime, Quantum Entanglement and Critical Epistemology."
From a passage by Stachel quoted in the previous post —
From the source for Stachel's remarks on Weyl and coordinatization —
Note that Stachel distorted Weyl's text by replacing Weyl's word
"symbols" with the word "quantities." —
This replacement makes no sense if the coordinates in question
are drawn from a Galois field — a field not of quantities , but rather
of algebraic symbols .
"You've got to pick up every stitch… Must be the season of the witch."
— Donovan song at the end of Nicole Kidman's "To Die For"
Florence 2001
Or: Coordinatization for Physicists
This post was suggested by the link on the word "coordinatized"
in the previous post.
I regret that Weyl's term "coordinatization" perhaps has
too many syllables for the readers of recreational mathematics —
for example, of an article on 4×4 magic squares by Conway, Norton,
and Ryba to be published today by Princeton University Press.
Insight into the deeper properties of such squares unfortunately
requires both the ability to learn what a "Galois field" is and the
ability to comprehend sevensyllable words.
Sunday, August 27, 2017
Black Well
The "Black" of the title refers to the previous post.
For the "Well," see Hexagram 48.
Related material —
The Galois Tesseract and, more generally, Binary Coordinate Systems.
Friday, August 11, 2017
Symmetry’s Lifeboat
A post suggested by the word tzimtzum (see Wednesday)
or tsimtsum (see this morning) —
Lifeboat from the Tsimtsum in Life of Pi —
Another sort of tsimtsum, contracting infinite space to a finite space —
Tuesday, July 11, 2017
A Date at the Death Cafe
The New York TImes reports this evening that
"Jon Underwood, Founder of Death Cafe Movement,"
died suddenly at 44 on June 27.
This journal on that date linked to a post titled "The Mystic Hexastigm."
A related remark on the complete 6point from Sunday, April 28, 2013 —
(See, in Veblen and Young's 1910 Vol. I, exercise 11,
page 53: "A plane section of a 6point in space can
be considered as 3 triangles perspective in pairs
from 3 collinear points with corresponding sides
meeting in 3 collinear points." This is the large
Desargues configuration. See Classical Geometry
in Light of Galois Geometry.)
This post was suggested, in part, by the philosophical ruminations
of Rosalind Krauss in her 2011 book Under Blue Cup . See
Sunday's post Perspective and Its Transections . (Any resemblance
to Freud's title Civilization and Its Discontents is purely coincidental.)
Sunday, July 9, 2017
Perspective and Its Transections
The title phrase is from Rosalind Krauss (Under Blue Cup , 2011) —
Another way of looking at the title phrase —
"A very important configuration is obtained by
taking the plane section of a complete space fivepoint."
(Veblen and Young, 1910, p. 39) —
For some context, see Desargues + Galois in this journal.
Wednesday, July 5, 2017
Imaginarium of a Different Kind
The title refers to that of the previous post, "The Imaginarium."
In memory of a translator who reportedly died on May 22, 2017,
a passage quoted here on that date —
Related material — A paragraph added on March 15, 2017,
to the Wikipedia article on Galois geometry —
George Conwell gave an early demonstration of Galois geometry in 1910 when he characterized a solution of Kirkman's schoolgirl problem as a partition of sets of skew lines in PG(3,2), the threedimensional projective geometry over the Galois field GF(2).^{[3]} Similar to methods of line geometry in space over a field of characteristic 0, Conwell used Plücker coordinates in PG(5,2) and identified the points representing lines in PG(3,2) as those on the Klein quadric. — User Rgdboer 
Friday, June 16, 2017
Chalkroom Jungle
At MASS MoCA, the installation "Chalkroom" quotes a lyric —
Oh beauty in all its forms funny how hatred can also be a beautiful thing When it's as sharp as a knife as hard as a diamond Perfect 
— From "One Beautiful Evening," by Laurie Anderson.
See also the previous post and "Smallest Perfect" in this journal.
Thursday, June 15, 2017
Building Six
Berkshire tales of May 25, 2017 —
See also, in this journal from May 25 and earlier, posts now tagged
"The Story of Six."
Saturday, June 3, 2017
Expanding the Spielraum (Continued*)
Or: The Square
"What we do may be small, but it has
a certain character of permanence."
— G. H. Hardy
* See Expanding the Spielraum in this journal.
Monday, May 29, 2017
The American Sublime
Line from "Vide," a post of June 8, 2014 —
Vide Classical Geometry in Light of Galois Geometry.
Recall that vide means different things in Latin and in French.
See also Stevens + "Vacant Space" in this journal.
Tuesday, May 23, 2017
Saturday, May 20, 2017
The Ludicrous Extreme
From a review of the 2016 film "Arrival" —
"A seemingly offhand reference to Abbott and Costello
is our gateway. In a movie as generally humorless as Arrival,
the jokes mean something. Ironically, it is Donnelly, not Banks,
who initiates the joke, naming the verbally inexpressive
Heptapod aliens after the loquacious Classical Hollywood
comedians. The squidlike aliens communicate via those beautiful,
cryptic images. Those signs, when thoroughly comprehended,
open the perceiver to a nonlinear conception of time; this is
SapirWhorf taken to the ludicrous extreme."
— Jordan Brower in the Los Angeles Review of Books
Further on in the review —
"Banks doesn’t fully understand the alien language, but she
knows it well enough to get by. This realization emerges
most evidently when Banks enters the alien ship and, floating
alongside Costello, converses with it in their picturelanguage.
She asks where Abbott is, and it responds — as presented
in subtitling — that Abbott 'is death process.'
'Death process' — dying — is not idiomatic English, and what
we see, written for us, is not a perfect translation but a
rendering of Banks’s understanding. This, it seems to me, is a
crucial moment marking the hard limit of a human mind,
working within the confines of human language to understand
an ultimately intractable xenolinguistic system."
For what may seem like an intractable xenolinguistic system to
those whose experience of mathematics is limited to portrayals
by Hollywood, see the previous post —
van Lint and Wilson Meet the Galois Tesseract.
The death process of van Lint occurred on Sept. 28, 2004.
Thursday, April 27, 2017
Partner, Anchor, Decompose
See also a figure from 2 AM ET April 26 …
" Partner, anchor, decompose. That's not math.
That's the plot to 'Silence of the Lambs.' "
Wednesday, April 26, 2017
A Tale Unfolded
A sketch, adapted tonight from Girl Scouts of Palo Alto —
From the April 14 noon post High Concept —
From the April 14 3 AM post Hudson and Finite Geometry —
From the April 24 evening post The Trials of Device —
Note that Hudson's 1905 "unfolding" of even and odd puts even on top of
the square array, but my own 2013 unfolding above puts even at its left.
Monday, April 24, 2017
The Trials of Device
"A blank underlies the trials of device"
— Wallace Stevens, "An Ordinary Evening in New Haven" (1950)
A possible meaning for the phrase "the trials of device" —
See also Log24 posts mentioning a particular device, the pentagram .
For instance —
Monday, April 17, 2017
Saturday, April 15, 2017
Quanta Dating
For the Church of Synchronology —
See also this journal on July 17, 2014, and March 28, 2017.
Friday, April 14, 2017
Hudson and Finite Geometry
The above fourelement sets of black subsquares of a 4×4 square array
are 15 of the 60 Göpel tetrads , and 20 of the 80 Rosenhain tetrads , defined
by R. W. H. T. Hudson in his 1905 classic Kummer's Quartic Surface .
Hudson did not view these 35 tetrads as planes through the origin in a finite
affine 4space (or, equivalently, as lines in the corresponding finite projective
3space).
In order to view them in this way, one can view the tetrads as derived,
via the 15 twoelement subsets of a sixelement set, from the 16 elements
of the binary Galois affine space pictured above at top left.
This space is formed by taking symmetricdifference (Galois binary)
sums of the 15 twoelement subsets, and identifying any resulting four
element (or, summing three disjoint twoelement subsets, sixelement)
subsets with their complements. This process was described in my note
"The 2subsets of a 6set are the points of a PG(3,2)" of May 26, 1986.
The space was later described in the following —
Wednesday, April 12, 2017
Contracting the Spielraum
The contraction of the title is from group actions on
the ninefold square (with the center subsquare fixed)
to group actions on the eightfold cube.
From a post of June 4, 2014 …
At math.stackexchange.com on March 112, 2013:
“Is there a geometric realization of the Quaternion group?” —
The above illustration, though neatly drawn, appeared under the
cloak of anonymity. No source was given for the illustrated group actions.
Possibly they stem from my Log24 posts or notes such as the Jan. 4, 2012,
note on quaternion actions at finitegeometry.org/sc (hence ultimately
from my note “GL(2,3) actions on a cube” of April 5, 1985).
Expanding the Spielraum
"Cézanne ignores the laws of classical perspective . . . ."
— Voorhies, James. “Paul Cézanne (1839–1906).”
In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History . New York:
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (October 2004)
Some others do not.
This is what I called "the large Desargues configuration"
in posts of April 2013 and later.
Tuesday, April 4, 2017
White Cube
"We have now reached
a point where we see
not the art but the space first….
An image comes to mind
of a white, ideal space
that, more than any single picture,
may be the archetypal image
of 20thcentury art."
"Space: what you
damn well have to see."
— James Joyce, Ulysses
Monday, April 3, 2017
Wednesday, March 29, 2017
The Crimson Abyss
"And as the characters in the meme twitch into the abyss
that is the sky, this meme will disappear into whatever
internet abyss swallowed MySpace."
—Staff writer Kamila Czachorowski, Harvard Crimson , March 29
1984 —
2010 —
Logo design for Stack Exchange Math by Jin Yang
Recent posts now tagged Crimson Abyss suggest
the above logo be viewed in light of a certain page 29 —
"… as if into a crimson abyss …." —
Update of 9 PM ET March 29, 2017:
Prospero's Children was first published by HarperCollins,
London, in 1999. A statement by the publisher provides
an instance of the famous "muchneeded gap." —
"This is English fantasy at its finest. Prospero’s Children
steps into the gap that exists between The Lion, the Witch
and the Wardrobe and Clive Barker’s Weaveworld , and
is destined to become a modern classic."
Related imagery —
See also "Hexagram 64 in Context" (Log24, March 16, 2017).
Design Abyss
Hexagram 29,
The Abyss (Water)
This post was suggested by an August 6, 2010, post by the designer
(in summer or fall, 2010) of the Stack Exchange math logo (see
the previous Log24 post, Art Space Illustrated) —
In that post, the designer quotes the Wilhelm/Baynes I Ching to explain
his choice of Hexagram 63, Water Over Fire, as a personal icon —
"When water in a kettle hangs over fire, the two elements
stand in relation and thus generate energy (cf. the
production of steam). But the resulting tension demands
caution. If the water boils over, the fire is extinguished
and its energy is lost. If the heat is too great, the water
evaporates into the air. These elements here brought in
to relation and thus generating energy are by nature
hostile to each other. Only the most extreme caution
can prevent damage."
See also this journal on Walpurgisnacht (April 30), 2010 —
Hexagram 29:

Hexagram 30: 
A thought from another Germanspeaking philosopher —
"Die Philosophie ist ein Kampf gegen die Verhexung
unsres Verstandes durch die Mittel unserer Sprache."
See also The Crimson 's abyss in today's 4:35 AM post Art Space, Continued.
Tuesday, March 28, 2017
Bit by Bit
From Log24, "Cube Bricks 1984" —
Also on March 9, 2017 —
For those who prefer graphic art —
Backstory
Click here to enlarge. Click the image for the source page.
The "this page" reference is to …
Finite Geometry of the Square and Cube.
Also from March 14, 2017 —
Thursday, March 2, 2017
Ageometretos*
Stories
"We tell ourselves stories in order to live." — Joan Didion
The New York Times Magazine online today —
"As a former believer and now a nonbeliever, Carrère,
seeking answers, sets out, in The Kingdom , to tell
the story of the storytellers. He is trying to understand
what it takes to be able to tell a story, any story.
And what he finds, once again, is that you have to find
your role in it."
— Wyatt Mason in The New York Times Magazine ,
online March 2, 2017
Like Tom Hanks?
Click image for related posts.
Sunday, January 29, 2017
Lottery Hermeneutics
For some backstory, see Lottery in this journal,
esp. a post of June 28, 2007:
Real Numbers: An Object Lesson.
One such number, 8775, is suggested by
a Heinlein short story in a Jan. 25 post.
A search today for that number —
That Jan. 25 post, "For Your Consideration," also mentions logic.
Logic appears as well within a post from the above "8775" date,
August 16, 2016 —
Update of 10 am on August 16, 2016 —
See also Atiyah on the theology of 
Related: Remarks by Charles Altieri on Wittgenstein in
today's previous post.
For remarks by Wittgenstein related to geometry and logic, see
(for instance) "Logical space" in "A Wittgenstein Dictionary," by
HansJohann Glock (WileyBlackwell, 1996).
Saturday, December 31, 2016
Habeas
Wednesday, October 5, 2016
Sources
From a Google image search yesterday —
Sources (left to right, top to bottom) —
Math Guy (July 16, 2014)
The Galois Tesseract (Sept. 1, 2011)
The Full Force of Roman Law (April 21, 2014)
A Great Moonshine (Sept. 25, 2015)
A Point of Identity (August 8, 2016)
Pascal via Curtis (April 6, 2013)
Correspondences (August 6, 2011)
Symmetric Generation (Sept. 21, 2011)
Monday, September 26, 2016
The Embedding
From this morning's 3:33 AM ET post —
Adapted from a post of Dec. 8, 2012, "Defining the Contest" —
From a post of Sept. 22,
"Binary Opposition Illustrated" —
From Sunday's news —
Palmervision
Sunday, September 25, 2016
Introduction to Pragmatism
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
on the origins of Pragmatism:
"Pragmatism had been born in the discussions at
a ‘metaphysical club’ in Harvard around 1870
(see Menand…*). Peirce and James participated
in these discussions along with some other philosophers
and philosophically inclined lawyers. As we have
already noted, Peirce developed these ideas in his
publications from the 1870s."
From "How to Make Our Ideas Clear," "The very first lesson that we have a right to demand that logic shall teach us is, how to make our ideas clear; and a most important one it is, depreciated only by minds who stand in need of it. To know what we think, to be masters of our own meaning, will make a solid foundation for great and weighty thought. It is most easily learned by those whose ideas are meagre and restricted; and far happier they than such as wallow helplessly in a rich mud of conceptions. A nation, it is true, may, in the course of generations, overcome the disadvantage of an excessive wealth of language and its natural concomitant, a vast, unfathomable deep of ideas. We may see it in history, slowly perfecting its literary forms, sloughing at length its metaphysics, and, by virtue of the untirable patience which is often a compensation, attaining great excellence in every branch of mental acquirement. The page of history is not yet unrolled which is to tell us whether such a people will or will not in the longrun prevail over one whose ideas (like the words of their language) are few, but which possesses a wonderful mastery over those which it has. For an individual, however, there can be no question that a few clear ideas are worth more than many confused ones. A young man would hardly be persuaded to sacrifice the greater part of his thoughts to save the rest; and the muddled head is the least apt to see the necessity of such a sacrifice. Him we can usually only commiserate, as a person with a congenital defect. Time will help him, but intellectual maturity with regard to clearness comes rather late, an unfortunate arrangement of Nature, inasmuch as clearness is of less use to a man settled in life, whose errors have in great measure had their effect, than it would be to one whose path lies before him. It is terrible to see how a single unclear idea, a single formula without meaning, lurking in a young man's head, will sometimes act like an obstruction of inert matter in an artery, hindering the nutrition of the brain, and condemning its victim to pine away in the fullness of his intellectual vigor and in the midst of intellectual plenty. Many a man has cherished for years as his hobby some vague shadow of an idea, too meaningless to be positively false; he has, nevertheless, passionately loved it, has made it his companion by day and by night, and has given to it his strength and his life, leaving all other occupations for its sake, and in short has lived with it and for it, until it has become, as it were, flesh of his flesh and bone of his bone; and then he has waked up some bright morning to find it gone, clean vanished away like the beautiful Melusina of the fable, and the essence of his life gone with it. I have myself known such a man; and who can tell how many histories of circlesquarers, metaphysicians, astrologers, and what not, may not be told in the old German story?" 
Peirce himself may or may not have been entirely successful
in making his ideas clear. See Where Credit Is Due (Log24,
June 11, 2016) and the Wikipedia article Categories (Peirce).
* Menand, L., 2001. The Metaphysical Club : A Story of
Ideas in America , New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Saturday, September 24, 2016
The Seven Seals
From Hermann Weyl's 1952 classic Symmetry —
"Galois' ideas, which for several decades remained
a book with seven seals but later exerted a more
and more profound influence upon the whole
development of mathematics, are contained in
a farewell letter written to a friend on the eve of
his death, which he met in a silly duel at the age of
twentyone. This letter, if judged by the novelty and
profundity of ideas it contains, is perhaps the most
substantial piece of writing in the whole literature
of mankind."
Some Galois geometry —
See the previous post for more narrative.
Core Structure
For the director of "Interstellar" and "Inception" —
At the core of the 4x4x4 cube is …
Cover modified.
Thursday, September 15, 2016
The Smallest Perfect Number/Universe
The smallest perfect number,* six, meets
"the smallest perfect universe,"** PG(3,2).
* For the definition of "perfect number," see any introductory
numbertheory text that deals with the history of the subject.
** The phrase "smallest perfect universe" as a name for PG(3,2),
the projective 3space over the 2element Galois field GF(2),
was coined by math writer Burkard Polster. Cullinane's square
model of PG(3,2) differs from the earlier tetrahedral model
discussed by Polster.
Tuesday, September 13, 2016
Parametrizing the 4×4 Array
The previous post discussed the parametrization of
the 4×4 array as a vector 4space over the 2element
Galois field GF(2).
The 4×4 array may also be parametrized by the symbol
0 along with the fifteen 2subsets of a 6set, as in Hudson's
1905 classic Kummer's Quartic Surface —
Hudson in 1905:
These two ways of parametrizing the 4×4 array — as a finite space
and as an array of 2element sets — were related to one another
by Cullinane in 1986 in describing, in connection with the Curtis
"Miracle Octad Generator," what turned out to be 15 of Hudson's
1905 "Göpel tetrads":
A recap by Cullinane in 2013:
Click images for further details.
Wednesday, August 24, 2016
Core Statements
"That in which space itself is contained" — Wallace Stevens
An image by Steven H. Cullinane from April 1, 2013:
The large Desargues configuration of Euclidean 3space can be
mapped canonically to the 4×4 square of Galois geometry —
On an Auckland University of Technology thesis by Kate Cullinane —
The thesis reportedly won an Art Directors Club award on April 5, 2013.
Monday, August 1, 2016
Cube
From this journal —
See (for instance) Sacred Order, July 18, 2006 —
From a novel published July 26, 2016, and reviewed
in yesterday's (print) New York Times Book Review —
The doors open slowly. I step into a hangar. From the rafters high above, lights blaze down, illuminating a twelvefoot cube the color of gunmetal. My pulse rate kicks up. I can’t believe what I’m looking at. Leighton must sense my awe, because he says, “Beautiful, isn’t it?” It is exquisitely beautiful. At first, I think the hum inside the hangar is coming from the lights, but it can’t be. It’s so deep I can feel it at the base of my spine, like the ultralowfrequency vibration of a massive engine. I drift toward the box, mesmerized.
— Crouch, Blake. Dark Matter: A Novel 
See also Log24 on the publication date of Dark Matter .
Thursday, July 28, 2016
The Giglmayr Foldings
Giglmayr's transformations (a), (c), and (e) convert
his starting pattern
1 2 5 6
3 4 7 8
9 10 13 14
11 12 15 16
to three length16 sequences. Putting these resulting
sequences back into the 4×4 array in normal reading
order, we have
1 2 3 4 1 2 4 3 1 4 2 3
5 6 7 8 5 6 8 7 7 6 8 5
9 10 11 12 13 14 16 15 15 14 16 13
13 14 15 16 9 10 12 11 9 12 10 11
(a) (c) (e)
Four length16 basis vectors for a Galois 4space consisting
of the origin and 15 weight8 vectors over GF(2):
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 .
(See "Finite Relativity" at finitegeometry.org/sc.)
The actions of Giglmayr's transformations on the above
four basis vectors indicate the transformations are part of
the affine group (of order 322,560) on the affine space
corresponding to the above vector space.
For a description of such transformations as "foldings,"
see a search for Zarin + Folded in this journal.
Monday, May 30, 2016
Perfect Universe
(A sequel to the previous post, Perfect Number)
Since antiquity, six has been known as
"the smallest perfect number." The word "perfect"
here means that a number is the sum of its
proper divisors — in the case of six: 1, 2, and 3.
The properties of a sixelement set (a "6set")
divided into three 2sets and divided into two 3sets
are those of what Burkard Polster, using the same
adjective in a different sense, has called
"the smallest perfect universe" — PG(3,2), the projective
3dimensional space over the 2element Galois field.
A Google search for the phrase "smallest perfect universe"
suggests a turnaround in meaning , if not in finance,
that might please Yahoo CEO Marissa Mayer on her birthday —
The semantic turnaround here in the meaning of "perfect"
is accompanied by a model turnaround in the picture of PG(3,2) as
Polster's tetrahedral model is replaced by Cullinane's square model.
Further background from the previous post —
See also Kirkman's Schoolgirl Problem.
Sunday, May 29, 2016
Tuesday, May 24, 2016
Rosenhain and Göpel Revisited
The authors Taormina and Wendland in the previous post
discussed some mathematics they apparently did not know was
related to a classic 1905 book by R. W. H. T. Hudson, Kummer's
Quartic Surface .
"This famous book is a prototype for the possibility
of explaining and exploring a manyfaceted topic of
research, without focussing on general definitions,
formal techniques, or even fancy machinery. In this
regard, the book still stands as a highly recommendable,
unparalleled introduction to Kummer surfaces, as a
permanent source of inspiration and, last but not least,
as an everlasting symbol of mathematical culture."
— Werner Kleinert, Mathematical Reviews ,
as quoted at Amazon.com
Some 4×4 diagrams from that book are highly relevant to the
discussion by Taormina and Wendland of the 4×4 squares within
the 1974 Miracle Octad Generator of R. T. Curtis that were later,
in 1987, described by Curtis as pictures of the vector 4space over
the twoelement Galois field GF(2).
Hudson did not think of his 4×4 diagrams as illustrating a vector space,
but he did use them to picture certain subsets of the 16 cells in each
diagram that he called Rosenhain and Göpel tetrads .
Some related work of my own (click images for related posts)—
Rosenhain tetrads as 20 of the 35 projective lines in PG(3,2)
Göpel tetrads as 15 of the 35 projective lines in PG(3,2)
Related terminology describing the Göpel tetrads above
Tuesday, May 10, 2016
Game Theory
The following passage appeared in this journal
on the night of May 2324, 2015.
The afternoon of May 23, 2015, was significant
for devotees of mathematics and narrative.
Monday, April 25, 2016
Seven Seals
An old version of the Wikipedia article "Group theory"
(pictured in the previous post) —
"More poetically …"
From Hermann Weyl's 1952 classic Symmetry —
"Galois' ideas, which for several decades remained
a book with seven seals but later exerted a more
and more profound influence upon the whole
development of mathematics, are contained in
a farewell letter written to a friend on the eve of
his death, which he met in a silly duel at the age of
twentyone. This letter, if judged by the novelty and
profundity of ideas it contains, is perhaps the most
substantial piece of writing in the whole literature
of mankind."
The seven seals from the previous post, with some context —
These models of projective points are drawn from the underlying
structure described (in the 4×4 case) as part of the proof of the
Cullinane diamond theorem .
Friday, April 8, 2016
Ogdoads by Curtis
As was previously noted here, the construction of the Miracle Octad Generator
of R. T. Curtis in 1974 involved his "folding" the 1×8 octads constructed in 1967
by Turyn into 2×4 form.
This resulted in a way of picturing a wellknown correspondence (Conwell, 1910)
between partitions of an 8set and lines of the projective 3space PG(3,2).
For some background related to the "ogdoads" of the previous post, see
A Seventh Seal (Sept. 15, 2014).
Thursday, January 21, 2016
Dividing the Indivisible
My statement yesterday morning that the 15 points
of the finite projective space PG(3,2) are indivisible
was wrong. I was misled by quoting the powerful
rhetoric of Lincoln Barnett (LIFE magazine, 1949).
Points of Euclidean space are of course indivisible:
"A point is that which has no parts" (in some translations).
And the 15 points of PG(3,2) may be pictured as 15
Euclidean points in a square array (with one point removed)
or tetrahedral array (with 11 points added).
The geometry of PG(3,2) becomes more interesting,
however, when the 15 points are each divided into
several parts. For one approach to such a division,
see Mere Geometry. For another approach, click on the
image below.
Wednesday, January 13, 2016
Geometry for Jews
(Continued from previous episodes)
Boole and Galois also figure in the mathematics of space —
i.e. , geometry. See Boole + Galois in this journal.
Related material, according to Jung's notion of synchronicity —

This journal on the date, August 6, 2007, of the
above paper, and the following day —
posts now tagged Metamorphosis 2007

This journal on two of the dates of the 2003 Haifa workshop
that the paper mentions in a footnote —
posts now tagged Solomon's Mental Health Month
Monday, December 28, 2015
ART WARS Continues
Combining two headlines from this morning's
New York Times and Washington Post , we have…
Deceptively Simple Geometries
on a Bold Scale
Voilà —
Click image for details.
More generally, see
Boole vs. Galois.
Sunday, December 13, 2015
The Monster as Big as the Ritz
"The colorful story of this undertaking begins with a bang."
— Martin Gardner on the death of Évariste Galois
Sunday, December 6, 2015
Form and Idea
"Those early works are succinct and uncompromising
in how they give shape to the philosophical perplexities
of form and idea…."
J. J. Charlesworth, artnet news, Dec. 16, 2014
"Form" and "idea" are somewhat synonymous,
as opposed to "form" and "substance." A reading:
Tuesday, December 1, 2015
Pascal’s Finite Geometry
See a search for "large Desargues configuration" in this journal.
The 6 Jan. 2015 preprint "Danzer's Configuration Revisited,"
by Boben, Gévay, and Pisanski, places this configuration,
which they call the CayleySalmon configuration , in the
interesting context of Pascal's Hexagrammum Mysticum .
They show how the CayleySalmon configuration is, in a sense,
dual to something they call the SteinerPlücker configuration .
This duality appears implicitly in my note of April 26, 1986,
"Picturing the smallest projective 3space." The sixsets at
the bottom of that note, together with Figures 3 and 4
of Boben et. al. , indicate how this works.
The duality was, as they note, previously described in 1898.
Related material on sixset geometry from the classical literature—
Baker, H. F., "Note II: On the Hexagrammum Mysticum of Pascal,"
in Principles of Geometry , Vol. II, Camb. U. Press, 1930, pp. 219236
Richmond, H. W., "The Figure Formed from Six Points in Space of Four Dimensions,"
Mathematische Annalen (1900), Volume 53, Issue 12, pp 161176
Richmond, H. W., "On the Figure of Six Points in Space of Four Dimensions,"
Quarterly Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics , Vol. 31 (1900), pp. 125160
Related material on sixset geometry from a more recent source —
Cullinane, Steven H., "Classical Geometry in Light of Galois Geometry," webpage
Friday, November 20, 2015
Anticommuting Dirac Matrices as Skew Lines
(Continued from November 13)
The work of Ron Shaw in this area, ca. 19941995, does not
display explicitly the correspondence between anticommutativity
in the set of Dirac matrices and skewness in a line complex of
PG(3,2), the projective 3space over the 2element Galois field.
Here is an explicit picture —
References:
Arfken, George B., Mathematical Methods for Physicists , Third Edition,
Academic Press, 1985, pages 213214
Cullinane, Steven H., Notes on Groups and Geometry, 19781986
Shaw, Ron, "Finite Geometry, Dirac Groups, and the Table of
Real Clifford Algebras," undated article at ResearchGate.net
Update of November 23:
See my post of Nov. 23 on publications by E. M. Bruins
in 1949 and 1959 on Dirac matrices and line geometry,
and on another author who gives some historical background
going back to Eddington.
Some morerecent related material from the Slovak school of
finite geometry and quantum theory —
The matrices underlying the Saniga paper are those of Pauli, not
those of Dirac, but these two sorts of matrices are closely related.
Monday, November 2, 2015
The Devil’s Offer
This is a sequel to the previous post and to the Oct. 24 post
Two Views of Finite Space. From the latter —
" 'All you need to do is give me your soul:
give up geometry and you will have this
marvellous machine.' (Nowadays you
can think of it as a computer!) "
Colorful Story
"The office of color in the color line
is a very plain and subordinate one.
It simply advertises the objects of
oppression, insult, and persecution.
It is not the maddening liquor, but
the black letters on the sign
telling the world where it may be had."
— Frederick Douglass, "The Color Line,"
The North American Review , Vol. 132,
No. 295, June 1881, page 575
Or gold letters.
From a search for Seagram in this journal —
"The colorful story of this undertaking begins with a bang."
— Martin Gardner on the death of Évariste Galois
Saturday, October 31, 2015
Raiders of the Lost Crucible
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
on the date Friday, April 5, 2013 —
"First published Tue Sep 24, 1996;
substantive revision Fri Apr 5, 2013"
This journal on the date Friday, April 5, 2013 —
The object most closely resembling a "philosophers' stone"
that I know of is the eightfold cube .
For some related philosophical remarks that may appeal
to a general Internet audience, see (for instance) a website
by I Ching enthusiast Andreas Schöter that displays a labeled
eightfold cube in the form of a lattice diagram —
Related material by Schöter —
A 20page PDF, "Boolean Algebra and the Yi Jing."
(First published in The Oracle: The Journal of Yijing Studies ,
Vol 2, No 7, Summer 1998, pp. 19–34.)
I differ with Schöter's emphasis on Boolean algebra.
The appropriate mathematics for I Ching studies is,
I maintain, not Boolean algebra but rather Galois geometry.
See last Saturday's post Two Views of Finite Space.
Unfortunately, that post is, unlike Schöter's work, not
suitable for a general Internet audience.
Sunday, September 6, 2015
Elementally, My Dear Watson
Sarah Larson in the online New Yorker on Sept. 3, 2015,
discussed Google's new parent company, "Alphabet"—
"… Alphabet takes our most elementally wonderful
generaluse word—the name of the components of
language itself*—and reassigns it, like the words
tweet, twitter, vine, facebook, friend, and so on,
into a branded realm."
Emma Watson in "The Bling Ring"
This journal, also on September 3 —
Thursday, September 3, 2015 Filed under: Uncategorized — m759 @ 7:20 AM
For the title, see posts from August 2007 Related theological remarks:
Boolean spaces (old) vs. Galois spaces (new) in 
* Actually, Sarah, that would be "phonemes."
Thursday, September 3, 2015
Rings of August
For the title, see posts from August 2007 tagged Gyges.
Related theological remarks:
Boolean spaces (old) vs. Galois spaces (new) in
"The Quality Without a Name"
(a post from August 26, 2015) and the…
Related literature: A search for Borogoves in this journal will yield
remarks on the 1943 tale underlying the above film.
Wednesday, August 26, 2015
“The Quality Without a Name”
The title phrase, paraphrased without quotes in
the previous post, is from Christopher Alexander's book
The Timeless Way of Building (Oxford University Press, 1979).
A quote from the publisher:
"Now, at last, there is a coherent theory
which describes in modern terms
an architecture as ancient as
human society itself."
Three paragraphs from the book (pp. xiiixiv):
19. Within this process, every individual act
of building is a process in which space gets
differentiated. It is not a process of addition,
in which preformed parts are combined to
create a whole, but a process of unfolding,
like the evolution of an embryo, in which
the whole precedes the parts, and actualy
gives birth to then, by splitting.
20. The process of unfolding goes step by step,
one pattern at a time. Each step brings just one
pattern to life; and the intensity of the result
depends on the intensity of each one of these
individual steps.
21. From a sequence of these individual patterns,
whole buildings with the character of nature
will form themselves within your thoughts,
as easily as sentences.
Compare to, and contrast with, these illustrations of "Boolean space":
(See also similar illustrations from Berkeley and Purdue.)
Detail of the above image —
Note the "unfolding," as Christopher Alexander would have it.
These "Boolean" spaces of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 points
are also Galois spaces. See the diamond theorem —
Sunday, July 19, 2015
Lying Rhyme
Tom Stoppard, Jumpers —
“Heaven, how can I believe in Heaven?”
“To begin at the beginning: Is God?…” “Leave a space.” 
See as well a search for "Heaven.gif" in this journal.
For the more literate among us —
… and the modulation from algebra to space.
Wednesday, June 17, 2015
Slow Art, Continued
The title of the previous post, "Slow Art," is a phrase
of the late art critic Robert Hughes.
Example from mathematics:

Göpel tetrads as subsets of a 4×4 square in the classic
1905 book Kummer's Quartic Surface by R. W. H. T. Hudson.
These subsets were constructed as helpful schematic diagrams,
without any reference to the concept of finite geometry they
were later to embody.

Göpel tetrads (not named as such), again as subsets of
a 4×4 square, that form the 15 isotropic projective lines of the
finite projective 3space PG(3,2) in a note on finite geometry
from 1986 — 
Göpel tetrads as these figures of finite geometry in a 1990
foreword to the reissued 1905 book of Hudson:
Click the Barth passage to see it with its surrounding text.
Related material:
Monday, June 15, 2015
Omega Matrix
See that phrase in this journal.
See also last night's post.
The Greek letter Ω is customarily used to
denote a set that is acted upon by a group.
If the group is the affine group of 322,560
transformations of the fourdimensional
affine space over the twoelement Galois
field, the appropriate Ω is the 4×4 grid above.
Thursday, June 11, 2015
Omega
Omega is a Greek letter, Ω , used in mathematics to denote
a set on which a group acts.
For instance, the affine group AGL(3,2) is a group of 1,344
actions on the eight elements of the vector 3space over the
twoelement Galois field GF(2), or, if you prefer, on the Galois
field Ω = GF(8).
Related fiction: The Eight , by Katherine Neville.
Related nonfiction: A remark by Werner Heisenberg
in this journal on Saturday, June 6, 2015, the eightfold cube ,
and the illustrations below —
Mathematics
The Fano plane block design 
Magic
The Deathly Hallows symbol— 
Tuesday, June 9, 2015
Colorful Song
For geeks* —
" Domain, Domain on the Range , "
where Domain = the Galois tesseract and
Range = the fourelement Galois field.
This post was suggested by the previous post,
by a Log24 search for Knight + Move, and by
the phrase "discouraging words" found in that search.
* A term from the 1947 film "Nightmare Alley."
Saturday, May 23, 2015
Group
On the artist Hilma af Klint (18621944):
"She belonged to a group called 'The Five'…."
Related material — Real Life (Log24, May 20, 2015).
From that post:
Wednesday, May 20, 2015
Real Life
From the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel Tuesday afternoon —
A 46yearold Jesuit priest who was a Marquette University
assistant professor of theology collapsed on campus
Tuesday morning and died, President Michael Lovell
announced to the campus community in an email….
"Rev. Lúcás (Yiu Sing Luke) Chan, S.J., died after
collapsing this morning in Marquette Hall. Just last Sunday,
Father Chan offered the invocation at the Klingler College
of Arts and Sciences graduation ceremony…."
Synchronicity check…
From this journal on the above publication date of
Chan's book — Sept. 20, 2012 —
From a Log24 post on the preceding day, Sept. 19, 2012 —
“The Game in the Ship cannot be approached as a job,
a vocation, a career, or a recreation. To the contrary,
it is Life and Death itself at work there. In the Inner Game,
we call the Game Dhum Welur , the Mind of God."
— The Gameplayers of Zan
Wednesday, April 22, 2015
Purely Aesthetic
G. H. Hardy in A Mathematician's Apology —
What ‘purely aesthetic’ qualities can we distinguish in such theorems as Euclid’s or Pythagoras’s? I will not risk more than a few disjointed remarks. In both theorems (and in the theorems, of course, I include the proofs) there is a very high degree of unexpectedness, combined with inevitability and economy. The arguments take so odd and surprising a form; the weapons used seem so childishly simple when compared with the farreaching results; but there is no escape from the conclusions. There are no complications of detail—one line of attack is enough in each case; and this is true too of the proofs of many much more difficult theorems, the full appreciation of which demands quite a high degree of technical proficiency. We do not want many ‘variations’ in the proof of a mathematical theorem: ‘enumeration of cases’, indeed, is one of the duller forms of mathematical argument. A mathematical proof should resemble a simple and clearcut constellation, not a scattered cluster in the Milky Way. 
Related material:

A post at noon on Sunday, April 19, 2015, with a link,
"Ageometretos medeis eisito," to an image search
for "large Desargues configuration" that includes …

A review, dated April 20, 2015, of "After Hours at the
Harvard Art Museums" in The Harvard Crimson 
An article, also dated April 20, 2015, in Harvard Magazine
titled "Harvard Installs 'Triangle Constellation'"
Thursday, March 26, 2015
The Möbius Hypercube
The incidences of points and planes in the
Möbius 8_{4 } configuration (8 points and 8 planes,
with 4 points on each plane and 4 planes on each point),
were described by Coxeter in a 1950 paper.*
A table from Monday's post summarizes Coxeter's
remarks, which described the incidences in
spatial terms, with the points and planes as the vertices
and faceplanes of two mutually inscribed tetrahedra —
Monday's post, "Gallucci's Möbius Configuration,"
may not be completely intelligible unless one notices
that Coxeter has drawn some of the intersections in his
Fig. 24, a schematic representation of the pointplane
incidences, as dotless, and some as hollow dots. The figure,
"Gallucci's version of Möbius's 8_{4}," is shown below.
The hollow dots, representing the 8 points (as opposed
to the 8 planes ) of the configuration, are highlighted in blue.
Here a plane (represented by a dotless intersection) contains
the four points that are represented in the square array as lying
in the same row or same column as the plane.
The above Möbius incidences appear also much earlier in
Coxeter's paper, in figures 6 and 5, where they are shown
as describing the structure of a hypercube.
In figures 6 and 5, the dotless intersections representing
planes have been replaced by solid dots. The hollow dots
have again been highlighted in blue.
Figures 6 and 5 demonstrate the fact that adjacency in the set of
16 vertices of a hypercube is isomorphic to adjacency in the set
of 16 subsquares of a square 4×4 array, provided that opposite
sides of the array are identified, as in Fig. 6. The digits in
Coxeter's labels above may be viewed as naming the positions
of the 1's in (0,1) vectors (x_{4}, x_{3}, x_{2}, x_{1}) over the twoelement
Galois field.^{†} In that context, the 4×4 array may be called, instead
of a Möbius hypercube , a Galois tesseract .
* "SelfDual Configurations and Regular Graphs,"
Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society,
Vol. 56 (1950), pp. 413455
^{†} The subscripts' usual 1234 order is reversed as a reminder
that such a vector may be viewed as labeling a binary number
from 0 through 15, or alternately as labeling a polynomial in
the 16element Galois field GF(2^{4}). See the Log24 post
Vector Addition in a Finite Field (Jan. 5, 2013).
Tuesday, March 24, 2015
Hirzebruch
(Continued from July 16, 2014.)
Some background from Wikipedia:
"Friedrich Ernst Peter Hirzebruch ForMemRS^{[2]}
(17 October 1927 – 27 May 2012)
was a German mathematician, working in the fields of topology,
complex manifolds and algebraic geometry, and a leading figure
in his generation. He has been described as 'the most important
mathematician in Germany of the postwar period.'
^{[3]}^{[4]}^{[5]}^{[6]}^{[7]}^{[8]}^{[9]}^{[10]}^{[11]"}
A search for citations of the A. E. Brouwer paper in
the previous post yields a quotation from the preface
to the third ("2013") edition of Wolfgang Ebeling's
Lattices and Codes: A Course Partially Based
on Lectures by Friedrich Hirzebruch , a book
reportedly published on September 19, 2012 —
"Sadly, on May 27 this year, Friedrich Hirzebruch, Hannover, July 2012 Wolfgang Ebeling "
(Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Ebeling, Institute of Algebraic Geometry, 
Also sadly …
Tuesday, February 3, 2015
Expanding the Spielraum
A short poem by several authors:
"The role of
the 16 singular points
on the Kummer surface
is now played by
the 64 singular points
on the Kummer threefold."
— From Remark 2.4 on page 9 of
"The Universal Kummer Threefold,"
by Qingchun Ren, Steven V Sam,
Gus Schrader, and Bernd Sturmfels,
http://arxiv.org/abs/1208.1229v3,
August 6, 2012 — June 12, 2013.
See also "Expanded Field" in this journal.
Illustration from "Sunday School," July 20, 2014.
Friday, January 23, 2015
Complex Symplectic Fantasy
"We are not isolated free chosers,
monarchs of all we survey, but
benighted creatures sunk in a reality
whose nature we are constantly and
overwhelmingly tempted to deform
by fantasy."
—Iris Murdoch, "Against Dryness"
in Encounter , p. 20 of issue 88
(vol. 16 no. 1, January 1961, pp. 1620)
"We need to turn our attention away from the consoling
dream necessity of Romanticism, away from the dry
symbol, the bogus individual, the false whole, towards
the real impenetrable human person."
— Iris Murdoch, 1961
"Impenetrability! That's what I say!"
Monday, December 29, 2014
Dodecahedron Model of PG(2,5)
Recent posts tagged Sagan Dodecahedron
mention an association between that Platonic
solid and the 5×5 grid. That grid, when extended
by the six points on a "line at infinity," yields
the 31 points of the finite projective plane of
order five.
For details of how the dodecahedron serves as
a model of this projective plane (PG(2,5)), see
Polster's A Geometrical Picture Book , p. 120:
For associations of the grid with magic rather than
with Plato, see a search for 5×5 in this journal.
Thursday, December 18, 2014
Platonic Analogy
(Five by Five continued)
As the 3×3 grid underlies the order3 finite projective plane,
whose 13 points may be modeled by
the 13 symmetry axes of the cube,
so the 5×5 grid underlies the order5 finite projective plane,
whose 31 points may be modeled by
the 31 symmetry axes of the dodecahedron.
See posts tagged GaloisPlane Models.
Wednesday, December 3, 2014
Pyramid Dance
Oslo artist Josefine Lyche has a new Instagram post,
this time on pyramids (the monumental kind).
My response —
Wikipedia's definition of a tetrahedron as a
"trianglebased pyramid" …
… and remarks from a Log24 post of August 14, 2013 :
Norway dance (as interpreted by an American)
I prefer a different, Norwegian, interpretation of "the dance of four."
Related material: 
See also some of Burkard Polster's trianglebased pyramids
and a 1983 trianglebased pyramid in a paper that Polster cites —
(Click image below to enlarge.)
Some other illustrations that are particularly relevant
for Lyche, an enthusiast of magic :
From On Art and Magic (May 5, 2011) —

(Updated at about 7 PM ET on Dec. 3.)
Sunday, November 30, 2014
Two Physical Models of the Fano Plane
The seven symmetry axes of the regular tetrahedron
are of two types: vertextoface and edgetoedge.
Take these axes as the "points" of a Fano plane.
Each of the tetrahedron's six reflection planes contains
two vertextoface axes and one edgetoedge axis.
Take these six planes as six of the "lines" of a Fano
plane. Then the seventh line is the set of three
edgetoedge axes.
(The Fano tetrahedron is not original with me.
See Polster's 1998 A Geometrical Picture Book , pp. 1617.)
There are three reflection planes parallel to faces
of the cube. Take the seven nonempty subsets of
the set of these three planes as the "points" of a
Fano plane. Define the Fano "lines" as those triples
of these seven subsets in which each member of
the triple is the symmetricdifference sum of the
other two members.
(This is the eightfold cube discussed at finitegeometry.org.)
Wednesday, November 26, 2014
A Tetrahedral FanoPlane Model
Update of Nov. 30, 2014 —
It turns out that the following construction appears on
pages 1617 of A Geometrical Picture Book , by
Burkard Polster (Springer, 1998).
"Experienced mathematicians know that often the hardest
part of researching a problem is understanding precisely
what that problem says. They often follow Polya's wise
advice: 'If you can't solve a problem, then there is an
easier problem you can't solve: find it.'"
—John H. Conway, foreword to the 2004 Princeton
Science Library edition of How to Solve It , by G. Polya
For a similar but more difficult problem involving the
31point projective plane, see yesterday's post
"EuclideanGalois Interplay."
The above new [see update above] Fanoplane model was
suggested by some 1998 remarks of the late Stephen Eberhart.
See this morning's followup to "EuclideanGalois Interplay"
quoting Eberhart on the topic of how some of the smallest finite
projective planes relate to the symmetries of the five Platonic solids.
Update of Nov. 27, 2014: The seventh "line" of the tetrahedral
Fano model was redefined for greater symmetry.
Class Act
Update of Nov. 30, 2014 —
For further information on the geometry in
the remarks by Eberhart below, see
pp. 1617 of A Geometrical Picture Book ,
by Burkard Polster (Springer, 1998). Polster
cites a different article by Lemay.
A search for background to the exercise in the previous post
yields a passage from the late Stephen Eberhart:
The first three primes p = 2, 3, and 5 therefore yield finite projective planes with 7, 13, and 31 points and lines, respectively. But these are just the numbers of symmetry axes of the five regular solids, as described in Plato's Timaeus : The tetrahedron has 4 pairs of face planes and comer points + 3 pairs of opposite edges, totalling 7 axes; the cube has 3 pairs of faces + 6 pairs of edges + 4 pairs of comers, totalling 13 axes (the octahedron simply interchanges the roles of faces and comers); and the pentagon dodecahedron has 6 pairs of faces + 15 pairs of edges + 10 pairs of comers, totalling 31 axes (the icosahedron again interchanging roles of faces and comers). This is such a suggestive result, one would expect to find it dealt with in most texts on related subjects; instead, while "well known to those who well know such things" (as Richard Guy likes to quip), it is scarcely to be found in the formal literature [9]. The reason for the common numbers, it turns out, is that the groups of symmetry motions of the regular solids are subgroups of the groups of collineations of the respective finite planes, a face axis being different from an edge axis of a regular solid but all points of a projective plane being alike, so the latter has more symmetries than the former. [9] I am aware only of a series of inhouse publications by Fernand Lemay of the Laboratoire de Didactique, Faculté des Sciences de I 'Éducation, Univ. Laval, Québec, in particular those collectively titled Genèse de la géométrie IX.
— Stephen Eberhart, Dept. of Mathematics, 
Eberhart died of bone cancer in 2003. A memorial by his
high school class includes an Aug. 7, 2003, transcribed
letter from Eberhart to a classmate that ends…
… I earned MA’s in math (UW, Seattle) and history (UM, Missoula) where a math/history PhD program had been announced but canceled. So 1984 to 2002 I taught math (esp. nonEuclidean geometry) at C.S.U. Northridge. It’s been a rich life. I’m grateful. Steve 
See also another informative BRIDGES paper by Eberhart
on mathematics and the seven traditional liberal arts.
Friday, November 14, 2014
Another Opening, Another Show
“What happens when you mix the brilliant wit of Noel Coward
with the intricate plotting of Agatha Christie? Set during a
weekend in an English country manor in 1932, Death by Design
is a delightful and mysterious ‘mashup’ of two of the greatest
English writers of all time. Edward Bennett, a playwright, and
his wife Sorel Bennett, an actress, flee London and head to
Cookham after a disastrous opening night. But various guests
arrive unexpectedly….”
— Samuel French (theatrical publisher) on a play that
opened in Houston on September 9, 2011.
Related material:
 This journal on May 28, 2014,
 on October 7, 2014,
 on November 13, 2014,
 and on the above opening night, September 9, 2011.
Friday, October 31, 2014
Structure
Introducing a group of 322,560 affine transformations of Dürer’s ‘Magic’ Square
The four vectorspace substructures of digits in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th place,
together with the diamond theorem, indicate that Dürer’s square “minus one”
can be transformed by permutations of rows, columns, and quadrants to a
square with (decimal) digits in the usual numerical order, increasing from
top left to bottom right. Such permutations form a group of order 322,560.
(Continued from Vector Addition in a Finite Field, Twelfth Night, 2013.)
Saturday, October 25, 2014
Foundation Square
In the above illustration of the 345 Pythagorean triangle,
the grids on each side may be regarded as figures of
Euclidean geometry or of Galois geometry.
In Euclidean geometry, these grids illustrate a property of
the inner triangle.
In elementary Galois geometry, ignoring the connection with
the inner triangle, the grids may be regarded instead as
illustrating vector spaces over finite (i.e., Galois) fields.
Previous posts in this journal have dealt with properties of
the 3×3 and 4×4 grids. This suggests a look at properties of
the next larger grid, the 5×5 array, viewed as a picture of the
twodimensional vector space (or affine plane) over the finite
Galois field GF(5) (also known as ℤ_{5}).
The 5×5 array may be coordinatized in a natural way, as illustrated
in (for instance) Matters Mathematical , by I.N. Herstein and
Irving Kaplansky, 2nd ed., Chelsea Publishing, 1978, p. 171:
See Herstein and Kaplansky for the elementary Galois geometry of
the 5×5 array.
For 5×5 geometry that is not so elementary, see…

"The HoffmanSingleton Graph and its Automorphisms," by
Paul R. Hafner, Journal of Algebraic Combinatorics , 18 (2003), 7–12, and 
the Web pages "HoffmanSingleton Graph" and "HigmanSims Graph"
of A. E. Brouwer.
Hafner's abstract:
We describe the HoffmanSingleton graph geometrically, showing that
it is closely related to the incidence graph of the affine plane over ℤ_{5}.
This allows us to construct all automorphisms of the graph.
The remarks of Brouwer on graphs connect the 5×5related geometry discussed
by Hafner with the 4×4 geometry related to the Steiner system S(5,8,24).
(See the Miracle Octad Generator of R. T. Curtis and the related coordinatization
by Cullinane of the 4×4 array as a fourdimensional vector space over GF(2).)
Sunday, September 21, 2014
Uncommon Noncore
This post was suggested by Greg Gutfeld’s Sept. 4 remarks on Common Core math.
Problem: What is 9 + 6 ?
Here are two approaches suggested by illustrations of Desargues’s theorem.
Solution 1:
9 + 6 = 10 + 5,
as in Common Core (or, more simply, as in common sense), and
10 + 5 = 5 + 10 = 15 as in Veblen and Young:
Solution 2:
In the figure below,
9 + 6 = no. of V’s + no. of A’s + no. of C’s =
no. of nonempty squares = 16 – 1 = 15.
(Illustration from Feb. 10, 2014.)
The silly educationists’ “partner, anchor, decompose” jargon
discussed by Gutfeld was their attempt to explain “9 + 6 = 10 + 5.”
As he said of the jargon, “That’s not math, that’s the plot from ‘Silence of the Lambs.'”
Or from Richard, Frank, and Marcus in last night’s “Intruders”
(BBC America, 10 PM).
Saturday, August 30, 2014
Physics and Theology
The titles of the previous three posts refer to
Hermann Weyl’s 1918 book Raum, Zeit, Materie
(Space, Time, Matter).
This suggests a look at a poetically parallel 1950 title —
The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe —
and at its underlying philosophy:
I am among “those who do not know that this great myth became Fact.”
I do, however, note that some other odd things have become fact.
Those who wish more on this topic may consult:
 The Metaphysics of the Incarnation , from
Oxford University Press on Epiphany 2011.  Epiphany Riddle, from that same date.
 Incarnation in this journal.